The Value of Improving the Productivity of the Drug Development Process View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2002-12

AUTHORS

Joseph A. DiMasi

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study examines the financial benefits that can accrue to drug developers from improvements in the drug development process. The effect on drug development costs from faster development, earlier decisions on project failures, and higher approval success rates are quantified. DATA AND METHODS: The results from a recent study of research and development (R&D) costs for new drugs are used as a benchmark against which improvements in the discovery and development processes are simulated. The cost results in the benchmark study were based on a sample of 68 randomly selected investigational drugs from 10 pharmaceutical firms. RESULTS: Simultaneous 25% reductions in phase lengths lower capitalized total cost per approved drug by 16%, or $US129 million; 50% reductions in time lower cost by 29%, or $US235 million. Earlier decisions to terminate research on drugs that will ultimately fail significantly reduce clinical costs. For example, shifting 5% of all clinical failures from phase III/regulatory review to phase I reduces out-of-pocket clinical costs by 5.5 to 7.1%; and capitalized clinical cost is lowered by 5.1 to 6.3%. If more productive discovery programmes or better preclinical screens increase success rates from 21.5% to one in three, firms can reduce capitalized total cost per approved drug by $US221 million to $US242 million. CONCLUSIONS: Whether faster development times, quicker termination decisions or higher success rates derive from public policy initiatives, better management, or new technologies, the impact on R&D costs can be substantial. Ultimately, the increased efficiency could result in more innovation and new therapies reaching patients sooner. More... »

PAGES

1-10

References to SciGraph publications

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.2165/00019053-200220003-00001

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00019053-200220003-00001

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017923785

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12457421


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1402", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Applied Economics", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/14", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Economics", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Benchmarking", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Clinical Trials as Topic", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Cost Control", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Drug Approval", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Drug Evaluation, Preclinical", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Drug Industry", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Efficiency", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Research", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Time Factors", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Tufts University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.429997.8", 
          "name": [
            "Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development, Tufts University, 192 South Street, Suite 550, 02111, Boston, Massachusetts, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "DiMasi", 
        "givenName": "Joseph A.", 
        "id": "sg:person.0731603223.48", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0731603223.48"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.2165/00019053-200119070-00004", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015074571", 
          "https://doi.org/10.2165/00019053-200119070-00004"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.2165/00019053-200119070-00004", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015074571", 
          "https://doi.org/10.2165/00019053-200119070-00004"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-6296(91)90001-4", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022500596"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1067/mcp.2001.115446", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028143244", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1067/mcp.2001.115446"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.2165/00019053-200220003-00002", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031510395", 
          "https://doi.org/10.2165/00019053-200220003-00002"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.2165/00019053-200220003-00002", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031510395", 
          "https://doi.org/10.2165/00019053-200220003-00002"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0167-6296(02)00126-1", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034082462"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0167-6296(02)00126-1", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034082462"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1067/mcp.2001.115132", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039919453", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1067/mcp.2001.115132"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/cen-v080n004.p027", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055372016"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/009286150003400101", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063722721"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/009286150003400101", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063722721"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/009286150003400303", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063722798"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/009286150003400303", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063722798"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/009286150003400425", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063722853"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/009286150003400425", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063722853"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/009286150103500108", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063722880"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/009286150103500108", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063722880"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/009286159703100319", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063725701"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/009286159703100319", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063725701"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2002-12", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2002-12-01", 
    "description": "OBJECTIVES: This study examines the financial benefits that can accrue to drug developers from improvements in the drug development process. The effect on drug development costs from faster development, earlier decisions on project failures, and higher approval success rates are quantified.\nDATA AND METHODS: The results from a recent study of research and development (R&D) costs for new drugs are used as a benchmark against which improvements in the discovery and development processes are simulated. The cost results in the benchmark study were based on a sample of 68 randomly selected investigational drugs from 10 pharmaceutical firms.\nRESULTS: Simultaneous 25% reductions in phase lengths lower capitalized total cost per approved drug by 16%, or $US129 million; 50% reductions in time lower cost by 29%, or $US235 million. Earlier decisions to terminate research on drugs that will ultimately fail significantly reduce clinical costs. For example, shifting 5% of all clinical failures from phase III/regulatory review to phase I reduces out-of-pocket clinical costs by 5.5 to 7.1%; and capitalized clinical cost is lowered by 5.1 to 6.3%. If more productive discovery programmes or better preclinical screens increase success rates from 21.5% to one in three, firms can reduce capitalized total cost per approved drug by $US221 million to $US242 million.\nCONCLUSIONS: Whether faster development times, quicker termination decisions or higher success rates derive from public policy initiatives, better management, or new technologies, the impact on R&D costs can be substantial. Ultimately, the increased efficiency could result in more innovation and new therapies reaching patients sooner.", 
    "genre": "research_article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.2165/00019053-200220003-00001", 
    "inLanguage": [
      "en"
    ], 
    "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1102812", 
        "issn": [
          "1170-7690", 
          "1179-2027"
        ], 
        "name": "PharmacoEconomics", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "Suppl 3", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "20"
      }
    ], 
    "name": "The Value of Improving the Productivity of the Drug Development Process", 
    "pagination": "1-10", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "readcube_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "556650d1751266d1693adb8c1f55a3502fc9a29999b3ec67581cadb64259c0ae"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "12457421"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "9212404"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.2165/00019053-200220003-00001"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1017923785"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.2165/00019053-200220003-00001", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017923785"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T12:38", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000363_0000000363/records_70043_00000000.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "http://link.springer.com/10.2165/00019053-200220003-00001"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.2165/00019053-200220003-00001'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.2165/00019053-200220003-00001'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.2165/00019053-200220003-00001'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.2165/00019053-200220003-00001'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

145 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      50 URIs      30 LITERALS      18 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.2165/00019053-200220003-00001 schema:about N0397e5740400471aa1cf94e6d10d5aef
2 N2e922dfa17da420d9c3378e73e3a646d
3 N4bcf256731a746fab328cdd68649d745
4 N7230dee4386e4a7780a37f1c2a1f35d6
5 N7a65bb1ead5a4ac087ff89956f01d6ec
6 N8fa0f8c6c7a94ac1bad4b8317830a55a
7 Nbbe73f36f1a141a1a2be579cc6388159
8 Nf08fdf0a56024c21bf87b7ac53a1169d
9 Nf30f18e3ba8541e08cd3442bd3db9ca7
10 anzsrc-for:14
11 anzsrc-for:1402
12 schema:author Nc33770375d664dd5ad711d010daf3f70
13 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1067/mcp.2001.115132
14 sg:pub.10.1067/mcp.2001.115446
15 sg:pub.10.2165/00019053-200119070-00004
16 sg:pub.10.2165/00019053-200220003-00002
17 https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-6296(91)90001-4
18 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0167-6296(02)00126-1
19 https://doi.org/10.1021/cen-v080n004.p027
20 https://doi.org/10.1177/009286150003400101
21 https://doi.org/10.1177/009286150003400303
22 https://doi.org/10.1177/009286150003400425
23 https://doi.org/10.1177/009286150103500108
24 https://doi.org/10.1177/009286159703100319
25 schema:datePublished 2002-12
26 schema:datePublishedReg 2002-12-01
27 schema:description OBJECTIVES: This study examines the financial benefits that can accrue to drug developers from improvements in the drug development process. The effect on drug development costs from faster development, earlier decisions on project failures, and higher approval success rates are quantified. DATA AND METHODS: The results from a recent study of research and development (R&D) costs for new drugs are used as a benchmark against which improvements in the discovery and development processes are simulated. The cost results in the benchmark study were based on a sample of 68 randomly selected investigational drugs from 10 pharmaceutical firms. RESULTS: Simultaneous 25% reductions in phase lengths lower capitalized total cost per approved drug by 16%, or $US129 million; 50% reductions in time lower cost by 29%, or $US235 million. Earlier decisions to terminate research on drugs that will ultimately fail significantly reduce clinical costs. For example, shifting 5% of all clinical failures from phase III/regulatory review to phase I reduces out-of-pocket clinical costs by 5.5 to 7.1%; and capitalized clinical cost is lowered by 5.1 to 6.3%. If more productive discovery programmes or better preclinical screens increase success rates from 21.5% to one in three, firms can reduce capitalized total cost per approved drug by $US221 million to $US242 million. CONCLUSIONS: Whether faster development times, quicker termination decisions or higher success rates derive from public policy initiatives, better management, or new technologies, the impact on R&D costs can be substantial. Ultimately, the increased efficiency could result in more innovation and new therapies reaching patients sooner.
28 schema:genre research_article
29 schema:inLanguage en
30 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
31 schema:isPartOf N3da7fdd337f84498a339a3ebcff4b751
32 N9f333d90bc1349fe9e73e24317913b7a
33 sg:journal.1102812
34 schema:name The Value of Improving the Productivity of the Drug Development Process
35 schema:pagination 1-10
36 schema:productId N212dfd61ac5c476e916adf24c4dc7807
37 N335924f2f7a64fdcbd0ca4cff583ec69
38 N363fb843a085486bb33892d8ac81de4b
39 N5104a05112294be99308eb95ceb6827d
40 N789485977f084cb584866603aaba5f5d
41 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017923785
42 https://doi.org/10.2165/00019053-200220003-00001
43 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T12:38
44 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
45 schema:sdPublisher N38fcfb4628e84683b023ce11cc9fe089
46 schema:url http://link.springer.com/10.2165/00019053-200220003-00001
47 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
48 sgo:sdDataset articles
49 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
50 N0397e5740400471aa1cf94e6d10d5aef schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
51 schema:name Time Factors
52 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
53 N212dfd61ac5c476e916adf24c4dc7807 schema:name doi
54 schema:value 10.2165/00019053-200220003-00001
55 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
56 N2e922dfa17da420d9c3378e73e3a646d schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
57 schema:name Efficiency
58 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
59 N335924f2f7a64fdcbd0ca4cff583ec69 schema:name readcube_id
60 schema:value 556650d1751266d1693adb8c1f55a3502fc9a29999b3ec67581cadb64259c0ae
61 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
62 N363fb843a085486bb33892d8ac81de4b schema:name dimensions_id
63 schema:value pub.1017923785
64 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
65 N38fcfb4628e84683b023ce11cc9fe089 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
66 rdf:type schema:Organization
67 N3da7fdd337f84498a339a3ebcff4b751 schema:volumeNumber 20
68 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
69 N4bcf256731a746fab328cdd68649d745 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
70 schema:name Drug Approval
71 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
72 N5104a05112294be99308eb95ceb6827d schema:name pubmed_id
73 schema:value 12457421
74 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
75 N7230dee4386e4a7780a37f1c2a1f35d6 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
76 schema:name Cost Control
77 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
78 N789485977f084cb584866603aaba5f5d schema:name nlm_unique_id
79 schema:value 9212404
80 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
81 N7a65bb1ead5a4ac087ff89956f01d6ec schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
82 schema:name Clinical Trials as Topic
83 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
84 N8fa0f8c6c7a94ac1bad4b8317830a55a schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
85 schema:name Drug Industry
86 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
87 N9f333d90bc1349fe9e73e24317913b7a schema:issueNumber Suppl 3
88 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
89 Nbbe73f36f1a141a1a2be579cc6388159 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
90 schema:name Benchmarking
91 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
92 Nc33770375d664dd5ad711d010daf3f70 rdf:first sg:person.0731603223.48
93 rdf:rest rdf:nil
94 Nf08fdf0a56024c21bf87b7ac53a1169d schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
95 schema:name Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
96 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
97 Nf30f18e3ba8541e08cd3442bd3db9ca7 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
98 schema:name Research
99 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
100 anzsrc-for:14 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
101 schema:name Economics
102 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
103 anzsrc-for:1402 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
104 schema:name Applied Economics
105 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
106 sg:journal.1102812 schema:issn 1170-7690
107 1179-2027
108 schema:name PharmacoEconomics
109 rdf:type schema:Periodical
110 sg:person.0731603223.48 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.429997.8
111 schema:familyName DiMasi
112 schema:givenName Joseph A.
113 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0731603223.48
114 rdf:type schema:Person
115 sg:pub.10.1067/mcp.2001.115132 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039919453
116 https://doi.org/10.1067/mcp.2001.115132
117 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
118 sg:pub.10.1067/mcp.2001.115446 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028143244
119 https://doi.org/10.1067/mcp.2001.115446
120 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
121 sg:pub.10.2165/00019053-200119070-00004 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015074571
122 https://doi.org/10.2165/00019053-200119070-00004
123 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
124 sg:pub.10.2165/00019053-200220003-00002 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031510395
125 https://doi.org/10.2165/00019053-200220003-00002
126 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
127 https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-6296(91)90001-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022500596
128 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
129 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0167-6296(02)00126-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034082462
130 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
131 https://doi.org/10.1021/cen-v080n004.p027 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055372016
132 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
133 https://doi.org/10.1177/009286150003400101 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063722721
134 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
135 https://doi.org/10.1177/009286150003400303 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063722798
136 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
137 https://doi.org/10.1177/009286150003400425 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063722853
138 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
139 https://doi.org/10.1177/009286150103500108 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063722880
140 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
141 https://doi.org/10.1177/009286159703100319 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063725701
142 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
143 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.429997.8 schema:alternateName Tufts University
144 schema:name Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development, Tufts University, 192 South Street, Suite 550, 02111, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
145 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...