Mechanism of Transdermal Drug Delivery by Electroporation View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter     


Chapter Info

DATE

2000-02-18

AUTHORS

Mark J. Jaroszeski , Richard Heller , Richard Gilbert , Timothy E. Vaughan , James C. Weaver

ABSTRACT

Human skin is a complex system, providing a formidable obstacle to drug delivery Fig. 1 (1-3). In particular, the stratum corneum (SC) is the primary barrier to transdermal drug delivery. The stratum corneum is made up of corneocytes, which are flattened remnants of cells, surrounded by lipid bilayer membranes (2,3). Because lipid-based structures tend to exclude charged species, the multilamellar arrangement acts as a "brick wall" (4) to prevent ionic and molecular transport. Fig. 1. 1. Key features of skin, skin barriers (104) and hypothetical aqueous pathways. The stratum corneum (SC) is the dead outermost layer (≈ 20 μm hydrated thickness) that is the main barrier to transport, particularly for charged molecules (1-3,5). Appendages (sweat ducts and hair follicles) penetrate the SC, but are lined with a double cell layer with tight junctions (105), which prevents significant transport. Hypothetical transport sites are labeled: LV (low voltage): Iontophoresis involves transport through preexisting aqueous pathways associated with appendages or around corneocytes within the SC (7,8,53,55,106). MV (moderate voltage) pulses: A relatively fast (>10 ms) process of "macropore activation" is followed by cell lining electroporation, which is hypothesized to create new aqueous pathways at appendages ("appendageal electroporation") (40,107). HV (high voltage) pulses: A very fast (<10 μs) process is hypothesized to involve a primary event of aqueous pathway creation based on electroporation of multilamellar lipid bilayers separating corneocytes (27,61,63,91,108), and secondary processes such as localized heating, or pathwayenlarging chemical introduction. Lower right: The original "brick wall model" of the SC (the largest area skin feature) intended to treat permeation of lipophilic molecules through the continuous "mortar" (4). More... »

PAGES

187-211

References to SciGraph publications

  • 1999. Molecular Transport across Stratum Corneum due to Electric Pulses:Behavior of Localized Transport Regions (LTRS) in ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM IN BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE
  • 1994. Electrically-Induced DNA Transfer into Cells. Electrotransfection in Vivo in GENE THERAPEUTICS
  • 1999. Molecular Uptake in Yeast by Electroporation: Evidence for a Plateau in ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM IN BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE
  • 1998-08. Theory of Skin Electroporation: Implications of Straight-Through Aqueous Pathway Segments that Connect Adjacent Corneocytes in JOURNAL OF INVESTIGATIVE DERMATOLOGY SYMPOSIUM PROCEEDINGS
  • 1979-06. Reversible electrical breakdown of lipid bilayer membranes: A charge-pulse relaxation study in THE JOURNAL OF MEMBRANE BIOLOGY
  • 1994-12. Rapid Temporal Control of Transdermal Drug Delivery by Electroporation in PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH
  • 1998-02. In vivo electrically mediated protein and gene transfer in murine melanoma in NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • 1998-08. Skin Appendageal Macropores as a Possible Pathway for Electrical Current in JOURNAL OF INVESTIGATIVE DERMATOLOGY SYMPOSIUM PROCEEDINGS
  • 1995-11. Transdermal Delivery of Heparin by Skin Electroporation in BIO/TECHNOLOGY
  • 1998-08. Skin Electroporation Causes Molecular Transport Across the Stratum Corneum through Localized Transport Regions in JOURNAL OF INVESTIGATIVE DERMATOLOGY SYMPOSIUM PROCEEDINGS
  • 1999. Recent Advances in Skin Electroporation: Mechanism and Efficacy in ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM IN BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE
  • 1994-11. Transdermal Delivery of Metoprolol by Electroporation in PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH
  • 1997-05. Macromolecules as Novel Transdermal Transport Enhancers for Skin Electroporation in PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH
  • 1998-09. Gene transfer into muscle by electroporation in vivo in NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • 1994-02. Identification of the Pathway of lontophoretic Drug Delivery: Light and Ultrastructural Studies Using Mercuric Chloride in Pigs in PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH
  • 1991-03. Evidence that Oleic Acid Exists in a Separate Phase Within Stratum Corneum Lipids in PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH
  • Book

    TITLE

    Electrochemotherapy, Electrogenetherapy, and Transdermal Drug Delivery

    ISBN

    1-59259-080-2

    Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1385/1-59259-080-2:187

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1385/1-59259-080-2:187

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013008622

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21445736


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0306", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Physical Chemistry (incl. Structural)", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/03", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Chemical Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "familyName": "Jaroszeski", 
            "givenName": "Mark J.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01144305106.75", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01144305106.75"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "familyName": "Heller", 
            "givenName": "Richard", 
            "id": "sg:person.01057200577.35", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01057200577.35"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "familyName": "Gilbert", 
            "givenName": "Richard", 
            "id": "sg:person.0716725263.03", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0716725263.03"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Massachusetts Intitute of Technology"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Vaughan", 
            "givenName": "Timothy E.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01007645342.26", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01007645342.26"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Department of Chemical Engineering, Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Weaver", 
            "givenName": "James C.", 
            "id": "sg:person.07605643672.68", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07605643672.68"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/jidsymp.1998.30", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000556970", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/jidsymp.1998.30"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1038/jidsymp.1998.30", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000556970"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-409x(92)90024-k", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001500393"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-409x(92)90024-k", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001500393"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(93)81081-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002181848"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/a:1018930425591", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003628616", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1018930425591"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-2738(92)90378-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004561513"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-2738(92)90378-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004561513"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.90.22.10504", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004998353"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(92)80017-b", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006155601"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-4622(95)00098-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007539880"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0302-4598(96)05062-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009376515"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0168-3659(97)00117-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010353639"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/js980071k", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010653326"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(95)05031-0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011219580"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(95)01823-w", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011283458"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-3659(95)00121-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011539823"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/js960020s", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012147376"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-2738(92)90382-y", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012589925"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-2738(92)90382-y", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012589925"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690391211", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014789093"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01872858", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017321184", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01872858"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01872858", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017321184", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01872858"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.1980.tb06563.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017809935"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3109/10717549309022766", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017898000"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(79)85008-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019154925"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(86)80029-0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020045307"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-5793(89)81707-7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020251670"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1159/000029805", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020338678"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nbt1195-1205", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021050940", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt1195-1205"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nbt0298-168", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021429953", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt0298-168"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-3659(95)00089-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022228582"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4615-4867-6_57", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024045604", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-4867-6_57"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4615-4867-6_57", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024045604", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-4867-6_57"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-454135-1.50006-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024302390"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/jidsymp.1998.29", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024693558", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/jidsymp.1998.29"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-3659(94)00132-e", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025605969"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-3659(95)00036-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025794793"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(98)74008-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025809819"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(94)80943-9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026547821"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0167-7799(97)01069-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026772592"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(79)85005-9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027026886"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-5793(96)00590-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027295683"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-4781(91)90162-f", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027867599"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-4781(91)90162-f", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027867599"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690210522", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028390732"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-2738(92)90380-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030543002"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-2738(92)90380-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030543002"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(91)82212-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030562970"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0375-9601(75)90402-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031815932"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0375-9601(75)90402-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031815932"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(79)85006-0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031871539"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/a:1012161313701", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031949836", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1012161313701"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032187217", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/jidsymp.1998.32", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032479749", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/jidsymp.1998.32"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1097-0142(19960301)77:5<964::aid-cncr24>3.0.co;2-0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032510004"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nbt0998-867", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034785216", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt0998-867"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nbt0998-867", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034785216", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt0998-867"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(89)82763-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035391485"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-3659(96)01354-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035527105"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035930218", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/a:1018944223290", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036164810", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1018944223290"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1029/94rs01160", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037074918"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(97)78922-7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037103325"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(91)82115-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037631314"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-2736(95)00139-t", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038633245"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/a:1015845632280", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038966177", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1015845632280"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4684-6822-9_12", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038984035", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-6822-9_12"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0375-9601(81)90688-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039425632"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0375-9601(81)90688-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039425632"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-5379(91)90064-k", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039599683"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0302-4598(99)00056-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039632043"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-409x(92)90021-h", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039673333"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-409x(92)90021-h", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039673333"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(79)85010-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039927034"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-024924-4.50005-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040310410"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0302-4598(98)00180-9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040531458"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(79)85011-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040977048"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(94)80453-9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041344841"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042535859", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/a:1018907508501", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042544046", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1018907508501"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-2736(94)90040-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042809817"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-2736(94)90040-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042809817"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.1995.1968", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044247665"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(79)85007-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044482334"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(94)05013-k", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046791780"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.1997.6701", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046868855"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0168-3659(97)00147-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047134350"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4615-4867-6_221", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049452727", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-4867-6_221"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4615-4867-6_221", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049452727", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-4867-6_221"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(91)87001-w", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049769768"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-2736(94)00258-q", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049822250"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0169-409x(98)00061-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050351543"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jcb.2400510407", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050468332"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(82)80171-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050601856"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(79)85009-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050627671"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(95)80250-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050703058"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4615-4867-6_31", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051482103", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-4867-6_31"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4615-4867-6_31", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051482103", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-4867-6_31"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(95)01828-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052333587"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/aja.1001450102", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052593842"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/bi00187a042", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055164434"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/bi00692a032", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055185527"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/bi9628127", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055213203"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/bi9628127", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055213203"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.80.3404", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060817274"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.80.3404", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060817274"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078849654", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082017762", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082889905", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2000-02-18", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2000-02-18", 
        "description": "Human skin is a complex system, providing a formidable obstacle to drug delivery Fig. 1 (1-3). In particular, the stratum corneum (SC) is the primary barrier to transdermal drug delivery. The stratum corneum is made up of corneocytes, which are flattened remnants of cells, surrounded by lipid bilayer membranes (2,3). Because lipid-based structures tend to exclude charged species, the multilamellar arrangement acts as a \"brick wall\" (4) to prevent ionic and molecular transport. Fig. 1. 1. Key features of skin, skin barriers (104) and hypothetical aqueous pathways. The stratum corneum (SC) is the dead outermost layer (\u2248 20 \u03bcm hydrated thickness) that is the main barrier to transport, particularly for charged molecules (1-3,5). Appendages (sweat ducts and hair follicles) penetrate the SC, but are lined with a double cell layer with tight junctions (105), which prevents significant transport. Hypothetical transport sites are labeled: LV (low voltage): Iontophoresis involves transport through preexisting aqueous pathways associated with appendages or around corneocytes within the SC (7,8,53,55,106). MV (moderate voltage) pulses: A relatively fast (>10 ms) process of \"macropore activation\" is followed by cell lining electroporation, which is hypothesized to create new aqueous pathways at appendages (\"appendageal electroporation\") (40,107). HV (high voltage) pulses: A very fast (<10 \u03bcs) process is hypothesized to involve a primary event of aqueous pathway creation based on electroporation of multilamellar lipid bilayers separating corneocytes (27,61,63,91,108), and secondary processes such as localized heating, or pathwayenlarging chemical introduction. Lower right: The original \"brick wall model\" of the SC (the largest area skin feature) intended to treat permeation of lipophilic molecules through the continuous \"mortar\" (4).", 
        "genre": "chapter", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1385/1-59259-080-2:187", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
        "isPartOf": {
          "isbn": [
            "1-59259-080-2"
          ], 
          "name": "Electrochemotherapy, Electrogenetherapy, and Transdermal Drug Delivery", 
          "type": "Book"
        }, 
        "name": "Mechanism of Transdermal Drug Delivery by Electroporation", 
        "pagination": "187-211", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1385/1-59259-080-2:187"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "3df8ca68332f7f4a55487c4f465c83c5cae092e7211835ec688a51e2ffaedfa8"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1013008622"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "pubmed_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "21445736"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "publisher": {
          "location": "New Jersey", 
          "name": "Humana Press", 
          "type": "Organisation"
        }, 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1385/1-59259-080-2:187", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013008622"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "chapters", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-15T10:32", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8659_00000251.jsonl", 
        "type": "Chapter", 
        "url": "http://link.springer.com/10.1385/1-59259-080-2:187"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1385/1-59259-080-2:187'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1385/1-59259-080-2:187'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1385/1-59259-080-2:187'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1385/1-59259-080-2:187'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    380 TRIPLES      22 PREDICATES      120 URIs      19 LITERALS      8 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1385/1-59259-080-2:187 schema:about anzsrc-for:03
    2 anzsrc-for:0306
    3 schema:author N50b6e744385e41249dd36baa069eb730
    4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4615-4867-6_221
    5 sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4615-4867-6_31
    6 sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4615-4867-6_57
    7 sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4684-6822-9_12
    8 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01872858
    9 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1012161313701
    10 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1015845632280
    11 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1018907508501
    12 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1018930425591
    13 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1018944223290
    14 sg:pub.10.1038/jidsymp.1998.29
    15 sg:pub.10.1038/jidsymp.1998.30
    16 sg:pub.10.1038/jidsymp.1998.32
    17 sg:pub.10.1038/nbt0298-168
    18 sg:pub.10.1038/nbt0998-867
    19 sg:pub.10.1038/nbt1195-1205
    20 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032187217
    21 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035930218
    22 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042535859
    23 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078849654
    24 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082017762
    25 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082889905
    26 https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1097-0142(19960301)77:5<964::aid-cncr24>3.0.co;2-0
    27 https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690210522
    28 https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690391211
    29 https://doi.org/10.1002/aja.1001450102
    30 https://doi.org/10.1002/jcb.2400510407
    31 https://doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.1995.1968
    32 https://doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.1997.6701
    33 https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-2736(94)00258-q
    34 https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-2736(94)90040-x
    35 https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-2736(95)00139-t
    36 https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-5793(89)81707-7
    37 https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-5793(96)00590-x
    38 https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-2738(92)90378-3
    39 https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-2738(92)90380-8
    40 https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-2738(92)90382-y
    41 https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-4781(91)90162-f
    42 https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-3659(94)00132-e
    43 https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-3659(95)00036-8
    44 https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-3659(95)00089-5
    45 https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-3659(95)00121-2
    46 https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-3659(96)01354-5
    47 https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-409x(92)90021-h
    48 https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-409x(92)90024-k
    49 https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-5379(91)90064-k
    50 https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-4622(95)00098-4
    51 https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(79)85005-9
    52 https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(79)85006-0
    53 https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(79)85007-2
    54 https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(79)85008-4
    55 https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(79)85009-6
    56 https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(79)85010-2
    57 https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(79)85011-4
    58 https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(82)80171-2
    59 https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(86)80029-0
    60 https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(91)87001-w
    61 https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(92)80017-b
    62 https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(94)05013-k
    63 https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(95)01823-w
    64 https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(95)01828-x
    65 https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(95)05031-0
    66 https://doi.org/10.1016/0375-9601(75)90402-8
    67 https://doi.org/10.1016/0375-9601(81)90688-5
    68 https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-024924-4.50005-5
    69 https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-454135-1.50006-8
    70 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(89)82763-8
    71 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(91)82115-4
    72 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(91)82212-3
    73 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(93)81081-6
    74 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(94)80453-9
    75 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(94)80943-9
    76 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(95)80250-x
    77 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(97)78922-7
    78 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(98)74008-1
    79 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0167-7799(97)01069-x
    80 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0168-3659(97)00117-x
    81 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0168-3659(97)00147-8
    82 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0169-409x(98)00061-1
    83 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0302-4598(96)05062-3
    84 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0302-4598(98)00180-9
    85 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0302-4598(99)00056-2
    86 https://doi.org/10.1021/bi00187a042
    87 https://doi.org/10.1021/bi00692a032
    88 https://doi.org/10.1021/bi9628127
    89 https://doi.org/10.1021/js960020s
    90 https://doi.org/10.1021/js980071k
    91 https://doi.org/10.1029/94rs01160
    92 https://doi.org/10.1038/jidsymp.1998.30
    93 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.90.22.10504
    94 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.80.3404
    95 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.1980.tb06563.x
    96 https://doi.org/10.1159/000029805
    97 https://doi.org/10.3109/10717549309022766
    98 schema:datePublished 2000-02-18
    99 schema:datePublishedReg 2000-02-18
    100 schema:description Human skin is a complex system, providing a formidable obstacle to drug delivery Fig. 1 (1-3). In particular, the stratum corneum (SC) is the primary barrier to transdermal drug delivery. The stratum corneum is made up of corneocytes, which are flattened remnants of cells, surrounded by lipid bilayer membranes (2,3). Because lipid-based structures tend to exclude charged species, the multilamellar arrangement acts as a "brick wall" (4) to prevent ionic and molecular transport. Fig. 1. 1. Key features of skin, skin barriers (104) and hypothetical aqueous pathways. The stratum corneum (SC) is the dead outermost layer (≈ 20 μm hydrated thickness) that is the main barrier to transport, particularly for charged molecules (1-3,5). Appendages (sweat ducts and hair follicles) penetrate the SC, but are lined with a double cell layer with tight junctions (105), which prevents significant transport. Hypothetical transport sites are labeled: LV (low voltage): Iontophoresis involves transport through preexisting aqueous pathways associated with appendages or around corneocytes within the SC (7,8,53,55,106). MV (moderate voltage) pulses: A relatively fast (>10 ms) process of "macropore activation" is followed by cell lining electroporation, which is hypothesized to create new aqueous pathways at appendages ("appendageal electroporation") (40,107). HV (high voltage) pulses: A very fast (<10 μs) process is hypothesized to involve a primary event of aqueous pathway creation based on electroporation of multilamellar lipid bilayers separating corneocytes (27,61,63,91,108), and secondary processes such as localized heating, or pathwayenlarging chemical introduction. Lower right: The original "brick wall model" of the SC (the largest area skin feature) intended to treat permeation of lipophilic molecules through the continuous "mortar" (4).
    101 schema:genre chapter
    102 schema:inLanguage en
    103 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
    104 schema:isPartOf N240f81e9160c442ba7e75b3778ffbba6
    105 schema:name Mechanism of Transdermal Drug Delivery by Electroporation
    106 schema:pagination 187-211
    107 schema:productId N68a63ea387844bf5b05ef5da8c6f8447
    108 N694c43b07aea4e93b741e2f1cf44ead8
    109 Nb14768c14f654e9c96915f70cb447b75
    110 Ndda267bbf0224be5b71adffded157fca
    111 schema:publisher N96ae1b81793242d7909c6e9347043cf8
    112 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013008622
    113 https://doi.org/10.1385/1-59259-080-2:187
    114 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-15T10:32
    115 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    116 schema:sdPublisher N1af0b3852353492fbe3a6c9468849c18
    117 schema:url http://link.springer.com/10.1385/1-59259-080-2:187
    118 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    119 sgo:sdDataset chapters
    120 rdf:type schema:Chapter
    121 N15f61f6affa4433cb4b3aeafc5413892 rdf:first sg:person.0716725263.03
    122 rdf:rest N71ff50e3b5ae4122b4b2abe10a489607
    123 N1af0b3852353492fbe3a6c9468849c18 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    124 rdf:type schema:Organization
    125 N240f81e9160c442ba7e75b3778ffbba6 schema:isbn 1-59259-080-2
    126 schema:name Electrochemotherapy, Electrogenetherapy, and Transdermal Drug Delivery
    127 rdf:type schema:Book
    128 N50b6e744385e41249dd36baa069eb730 rdf:first sg:person.01144305106.75
    129 rdf:rest N51ce09f1aef841b685b6aff1b1de5113
    130 N51ce09f1aef841b685b6aff1b1de5113 rdf:first sg:person.01057200577.35
    131 rdf:rest N15f61f6affa4433cb4b3aeafc5413892
    132 N68a63ea387844bf5b05ef5da8c6f8447 schema:name dimensions_id
    133 schema:value pub.1013008622
    134 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    135 N694c43b07aea4e93b741e2f1cf44ead8 schema:name doi
    136 schema:value 10.1385/1-59259-080-2:187
    137 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    138 N71ff50e3b5ae4122b4b2abe10a489607 rdf:first sg:person.01007645342.26
    139 rdf:rest Nd2d5fee276c643df87a694e66e8bddeb
    140 N96ae1b81793242d7909c6e9347043cf8 schema:location New Jersey
    141 schema:name Humana Press
    142 rdf:type schema:Organisation
    143 N9f698cc1cbd34e06b2f11349d0d54c59 schema:name Massachusetts Intitute of Technology
    144 rdf:type schema:Organization
    145 Nb14768c14f654e9c96915f70cb447b75 schema:name pubmed_id
    146 schema:value 21445736
    147 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    148 Nd2d5fee276c643df87a694e66e8bddeb rdf:first sg:person.07605643672.68
    149 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    150 Ndda267bbf0224be5b71adffded157fca schema:name readcube_id
    151 schema:value 3df8ca68332f7f4a55487c4f465c83c5cae092e7211835ec688a51e2ffaedfa8
    152 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    153 Nfa07052c6b6d46f1bc685bcb6dfb315d schema:name Department of Chemical Engineering, Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    154 rdf:type schema:Organization
    155 anzsrc-for:03 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    156 schema:name Chemical Sciences
    157 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    158 anzsrc-for:0306 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    159 schema:name Physical Chemistry (incl. Structural)
    160 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    161 sg:person.01007645342.26 schema:affiliation N9f698cc1cbd34e06b2f11349d0d54c59
    162 schema:familyName Vaughan
    163 schema:givenName Timothy E.
    164 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01007645342.26
    165 rdf:type schema:Person
    166 sg:person.01057200577.35 schema:familyName Heller
    167 schema:givenName Richard
    168 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01057200577.35
    169 rdf:type schema:Person
    170 sg:person.01144305106.75 schema:familyName Jaroszeski
    171 schema:givenName Mark J.
    172 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01144305106.75
    173 rdf:type schema:Person
    174 sg:person.0716725263.03 schema:familyName Gilbert
    175 schema:givenName Richard
    176 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0716725263.03
    177 rdf:type schema:Person
    178 sg:person.07605643672.68 schema:affiliation Nfa07052c6b6d46f1bc685bcb6dfb315d
    179 schema:familyName Weaver
    180 schema:givenName James C.
    181 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07605643672.68
    182 rdf:type schema:Person
    183 sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4615-4867-6_221 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049452727
    184 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-4867-6_221
    185 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    186 sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4615-4867-6_31 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051482103
    187 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-4867-6_31
    188 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    189 sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4615-4867-6_57 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024045604
    190 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-4867-6_57
    191 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    192 sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4684-6822-9_12 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038984035
    193 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-6822-9_12
    194 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    195 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01872858 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017321184
    196 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01872858
    197 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    198 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1012161313701 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031949836
    199 https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1012161313701
    200 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    201 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1015845632280 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038966177
    202 https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1015845632280
    203 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    204 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1018907508501 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042544046
    205 https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1018907508501
    206 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    207 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1018930425591 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003628616
    208 https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1018930425591
    209 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    210 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1018944223290 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036164810
    211 https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1018944223290
    212 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    213 sg:pub.10.1038/jidsymp.1998.29 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024693558
    214 https://doi.org/10.1038/jidsymp.1998.29
    215 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    216 sg:pub.10.1038/jidsymp.1998.30 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000556970
    217 https://doi.org/10.1038/jidsymp.1998.30
    218 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    219 sg:pub.10.1038/jidsymp.1998.32 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032479749
    220 https://doi.org/10.1038/jidsymp.1998.32
    221 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    222 sg:pub.10.1038/nbt0298-168 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021429953
    223 https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt0298-168
    224 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    225 sg:pub.10.1038/nbt0998-867 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034785216
    226 https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt0998-867
    227 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    228 sg:pub.10.1038/nbt1195-1205 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021050940
    229 https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt1195-1205
    230 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    231 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032187217 schema:CreativeWork
    232 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035930218 schema:CreativeWork
    233 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042535859 schema:CreativeWork
    234 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078849654 schema:CreativeWork
    235 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082017762 schema:CreativeWork
    236 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082889905 schema:CreativeWork
    237 https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1097-0142(19960301)77:5<964::aid-cncr24>3.0.co;2-0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032510004
    238 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    239 https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690210522 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028390732
    240 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    241 https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690391211 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014789093
    242 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    243 https://doi.org/10.1002/aja.1001450102 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052593842
    244 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    245 https://doi.org/10.1002/jcb.2400510407 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050468332
    246 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    247 https://doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.1995.1968 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044247665
    248 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    249 https://doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.1997.6701 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046868855
    250 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    251 https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-2736(94)00258-q schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049822250
    252 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    253 https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-2736(94)90040-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042809817
    254 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    255 https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-2736(95)00139-t schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038633245
    256 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    257 https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-5793(89)81707-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020251670
    258 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    259 https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-5793(96)00590-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027295683
    260 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    261 https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-2738(92)90378-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004561513
    262 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    263 https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-2738(92)90380-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030543002
    264 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    265 https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-2738(92)90382-y schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012589925
    266 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    267 https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-4781(91)90162-f schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027867599
    268 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    269 https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-3659(94)00132-e schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025605969
    270 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    271 https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-3659(95)00036-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025794793
    272 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    273 https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-3659(95)00089-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022228582
    274 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    275 https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-3659(95)00121-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011539823
    276 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    277 https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-3659(96)01354-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035527105
    278 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    279 https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-409x(92)90021-h schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039673333
    280 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    281 https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-409x(92)90024-k schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001500393
    282 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    283 https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-5379(91)90064-k schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039599683
    284 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    285 https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-4622(95)00098-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007539880
    286 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    287 https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(79)85005-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027026886
    288 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    289 https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(79)85006-0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031871539
    290 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    291 https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(79)85007-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044482334
    292 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    293 https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(79)85008-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019154925
    294 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    295 https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(79)85009-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050627671
    296 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    297 https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(79)85010-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039927034
    298 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    299 https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(79)85011-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040977048
    300 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    301 https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(82)80171-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050601856
    302 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    303 https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(86)80029-0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020045307
    304 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    305 https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(91)87001-w schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049769768
    306 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    307 https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(92)80017-b schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006155601
    308 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    309 https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(94)05013-k schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046791780
    310 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    311 https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(95)01823-w schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011283458
    312 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    313 https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(95)01828-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052333587
    314 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    315 https://doi.org/10.1016/0302-4598(95)05031-0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011219580
    316 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    317 https://doi.org/10.1016/0375-9601(75)90402-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031815932
    318 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    319 https://doi.org/10.1016/0375-9601(81)90688-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039425632
    320 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    321 https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-024924-4.50005-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040310410
    322 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    323 https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-454135-1.50006-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024302390
    324 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    325 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(89)82763-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035391485
    326 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    327 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(91)82115-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037631314
    328 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    329 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(91)82212-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030562970
    330 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    331 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(93)81081-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002181848
    332 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    333 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(94)80453-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041344841
    334 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    335 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(94)80943-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026547821
    336 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    337 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(95)80250-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050703058
    338 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    339 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(97)78922-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037103325
    340 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    341 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(98)74008-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025809819
    342 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    343 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0167-7799(97)01069-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026772592
    344 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    345 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0168-3659(97)00117-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010353639
    346 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    347 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0168-3659(97)00147-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047134350
    348 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    349 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0169-409x(98)00061-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050351543
    350 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    351 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0302-4598(96)05062-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009376515
    352 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    353 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0302-4598(98)00180-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040531458
    354 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    355 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0302-4598(99)00056-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039632043
    356 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    357 https://doi.org/10.1021/bi00187a042 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055164434
    358 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    359 https://doi.org/10.1021/bi00692a032 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055185527
    360 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    361 https://doi.org/10.1021/bi9628127 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055213203
    362 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    363 https://doi.org/10.1021/js960020s schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012147376
    364 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    365 https://doi.org/10.1021/js980071k schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010653326
    366 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    367 https://doi.org/10.1029/94rs01160 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037074918
    368 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    369 https://doi.org/10.1038/jidsymp.1998.30 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000556970
    370 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    371 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.90.22.10504 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004998353
    372 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    373 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.80.3404 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060817274
    374 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    375 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.1980.tb06563.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017809935
    376 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    377 https://doi.org/10.1159/000029805 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020338678
    378 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    379 https://doi.org/10.3109/10717549309022766 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017898000
    380 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...