Barriers and facilitators to extended working lives in Europe: a gender focus View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2017-01-31

AUTHORS

Clare Ellen Edge, Anna Mary Cooper, Margaret Coffey

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThere is a global imperative to respond to the challenge of a growing ‘old-age dependency ratio’ by ensuring the workforce is healthy enough to remain in work for longer. Currently more than half of older workers leave before the default retirement age, and in some countries (e.g. the UK), the time spent in retirement is increasing. At the same time across Europe, there is a gender employment gap, with 14.5% fewer female workers between 55–64 years old, and a large variation in the participation of older women in the workforce (ranging from 30–75%). As older women are under-represented in the workforce, increasing employment in this group has the propensity to go some way towards reducing the old-age dependency ratio to ensure continued economic growth.ObjectivesThis review explores the barriers and facilitators to extended working lives in Europe, particularly those that impact on women.MethodsA systematic mapping review process was undertaken using four electronic databases, MEDLINE, PsychoINFO, PsychEXTRA via Ovid and AgeLine via EBSCO, using the terms, ‘work’, ‘ageing’, ‘retirement’, ‘pension’, ‘old’, ‘barrier’, ‘extended working life’, ‘gender’ and ‘health and well-being’. Hand searching was also carried out in the International Journal of Aging and Human Development and the International Journal of Aging and Society.ResultsThe search resulted in 15 English language studies published from 1st January 2005 to the current date that met the inclusion criteria.Key findingsThe key factors that influenced decisions to retire or extend working lives in Europe were health, social factors, workplace factors, and financial security and pension arrangements.Conclusions and implications of the key findingsHealth was found to be the most commonly cited barrier to extended working lives in Europe, and a number of social inequalities to work exist by gender. Structural factors exist, such as the gender pay gap, which disadvantages women, while the nature of work itself differs by gender and can have a negative impact on health. Currently, women tend to exit the labour market earlier than men; however, changes in the state pension age are resulting in women being required to work for as long as men, in most countries. For women to remain healthy at work, workplaces need to consider a range of interventions, including flexible arrangements to both work and retirement to enable women to balance the demands of work with domestic and caring responsibilities that particularly impact on them. More... »

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References to SciGraph publications

  • 2014-08-15. The effectiveness of interventions for ageing workers on (early) retirement, work ability and productivity: a systematic review in INTERNATIONAL ARCHIVES OF OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
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  • 2013-01-02. A commentary on studies presenting projections of the future prevalence of dementia in BMC PUBLIC HEALTH
  • 2008-03. Does Quality of Work Life Affect Men and Women’s Retirement Planning Differently? in APPLIED RESEARCH IN QUALITY OF LIFE
  • 2016-01-05. The effect of a cluster randomised control trial on objectively measured sedentary time and parental reports of time spent in sedentary activities in Belgian preschoolers: the ToyBox-study in INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
  • 2011-08-10. The association between psychosocial work environment, attitudes towards older workers (ageism) and planned retirement in INTERNATIONAL ARCHIVES OF OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
  • 2013-04-18. Work Adjustments in a Representative Sample of Employees with a Chronic Disease in the Netherlands in JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL REHABILITATION
  • 2013-12-13. Is retirement good for your health? A systematic review of longitudinal studies in BMC PUBLIC HEALTH
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    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29450074


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