Petrological characteristics and volatile content of magma of the 1979, 1989, and 2014 eruptions of Nakadake, Aso volcano, Japan View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2018-12

AUTHORS

Genji Saito, Osamu Ishizuka, Yoshihiro Ishizuka, Hideo Hoshizumi, Isoji Miyagi

ABSTRACT

Petrological observations and chemical analyses of melt inclusions in scoria were used to investigate the magma ascent and eruption processes of the 1979, 1989, and 2014 eruptions of Nakadake, Aso volcano, Japan. Major elements and sulfur contents of the melt inclusions were determined using an electron probe microanalyzer, and their water and CO2 contents were determined using secondary ion mass spectrometry. Five scoria specimens from the 2014 eruptions had an andesite composition identical to the scoria from the 1979 and 1989 eruptions. Thermometry using the chemical composition of the groundmass and the rims of the phenocrysts indicated that the temperature of the 2014 magma was 1042–1092 °C. Melt inclusions in plagioclases, clinopyroxenes, and olivines in the 2014 scoria had an andesite composition similar to that of the groundmass. The volatile content of the melt inclusions was 0.6–0.8 wt% H2O, 0.003–0.017 wt% CO2, and 0.008–0.036 wt% S. The variation in CO2 and S content of the melt inclusions was not correlated with the K2O content, suggesting that the magma degassed as pressure decreased. Melt inclusions in plagioclases, clinopyroxenes, and olivines from the 1979 and 1989 scoria had similar major elements and volatile content to the 2014 eruption specimens. The similarity in chemical composition of both the whole-rock and melt inclusions among all samples suggests that the magmas of these eruptions were derived from the same magma chamber. The gas saturation pressure estimated from the H2O and CO2 contents of the 1979, 1989, and 2014 scoria ranged from 18 to 118 MPa, corresponding to depths of 1–4 km. Comparison of this depth with geophysical observations suggests that the inclusion entrapments occurred in the upper part of the magma chamber and/or a conduit. By combining the melt inclusion analysis with volcanic gas observations, we estimated the bulk volatile content of the magma. Based on the bulk sulfur content of the magma and the SO2 flux between January 2014 and December 2017, the amount of degassed magma over that period was estimated to be the equivalent of 1–3 km3 of dense rock. The estimated volume was more than 600 times larger than that of products erupted during the same period. This suggests that magma degassing occurred at several depths in the magma chamber due to magma convection in a conduit. More... »

PAGES

197

References to SciGraph publications

Journal

TITLE

Earth, Planets and Space

ISSUE

1

VOLUME

70

Author Affiliations

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s40623-018-0970-x

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40623-018-0970-x

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1110592146


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44 schema:description Petrological observations and chemical analyses of melt inclusions in scoria were used to investigate the magma ascent and eruption processes of the 1979, 1989, and 2014 eruptions of Nakadake, Aso volcano, Japan. Major elements and sulfur contents of the melt inclusions were determined using an electron probe microanalyzer, and their water and CO2 contents were determined using secondary ion mass spectrometry. Five scoria specimens from the 2014 eruptions had an andesite composition identical to the scoria from the 1979 and 1989 eruptions. Thermometry using the chemical composition of the groundmass and the rims of the phenocrysts indicated that the temperature of the 2014 magma was 1042–1092 °C. Melt inclusions in plagioclases, clinopyroxenes, and olivines in the 2014 scoria had an andesite composition similar to that of the groundmass. The volatile content of the melt inclusions was 0.6–0.8 wt% H2O, 0.003–0.017 wt% CO2, and 0.008–0.036 wt% S. The variation in CO2 and S content of the melt inclusions was not correlated with the K2O content, suggesting that the magma degassed as pressure decreased. Melt inclusions in plagioclases, clinopyroxenes, and olivines from the 1979 and 1989 scoria had similar major elements and volatile content to the 2014 eruption specimens. The similarity in chemical composition of both the whole-rock and melt inclusions among all samples suggests that the magmas of these eruptions were derived from the same magma chamber. The gas saturation pressure estimated from the H2O and CO2 contents of the 1979, 1989, and 2014 scoria ranged from 18 to 118 MPa, corresponding to depths of 1–4 km. Comparison of this depth with geophysical observations suggests that the inclusion entrapments occurred in the upper part of the magma chamber and/or a conduit. By combining the melt inclusion analysis with volcanic gas observations, we estimated the bulk volatile content of the magma. Based on the bulk sulfur content of the magma and the SO2 flux between January 2014 and December 2017, the amount of degassed magma over that period was estimated to be the equivalent of 1–3 km3 of dense rock. The estimated volume was more than 600 times larger than that of products erupted during the same period. This suggests that magma degassing occurred at several depths in the magma chamber due to magma convection in a conduit.
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