Effect of antivenom therapy of Rhabdophis tigrinus (Yamakagashi snake) bites View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2014-12

AUTHORS

Toru Hifumi, Atsushi Sakai, Akihiko Yamamoto, Masahiro Murakawa, Manabu Ato, Keigo Shibayama, Hiroshi Kato, Yuichi Koido, Junichi Inoue, Yuko Abe, Kenya Kawakita, Masanobu Hagiike, Akihiko Ginnaga, Yasuhiro Kuroda

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rhabdophis tigrinus (Yamakagashi snake) is a rear-fanged colubrid snake present throughout Russia and Asia. Its venom induces life-threatening hemorrhagic symptoms and severe disseminated intravascular coagulation with a fibrinolytic phenotype. R. tigrinus antivenom manufactured by the immunization of horses to neutralize the venom has the risk of adverse events such as anaphylaxis and serum sickness disease. It should be used when benefit is greater than the risk of adverse effects; however, its efficacy has not been well evaluated. Although our previous survey of nine cases demonstrated that seven of all cases treated with antivenom survived, the clinical characteristics and prognosis without antivenom administration remained unclear. We assumed that R. tigrinus antivenom administration overlaps self-recovery with supportive care. We aimed to determine the association between antivenom administration and outcome with further analyzed cases. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of the Japan Snake Institute between January 1, 1973 and December 31, 2013. Antivenom and without antivenom groups were compared with regard to baseline demographic features, treatment-related factors, and outcomes. RESULTS: In total, 34 patients were analyzed (97% male, median age 37.5 years). Twenty-five patients were further examined from our previous study. On admission, the median levels of fibrinogen and fibrinogen degradation products were 35 mg/dL and 200 μg/mL, respectively, and platelet counts were 107,000/mm(3). The median disseminated intravascular coagulation score (defined by the Japanese Association of Acute Medicine) was 5. Antivenom was administered to 19 patients, with a median interval of 32 h between bite and antivenom administration. The in-hospital mortality rate was 12%. In univariate analysis, baseline characteristics and laboratory data were not significantly different between the antivenom and without antivenom groups. Hospital mortality in the antivenom group was significantly better than that in the without antivenom group (0% vs. 26.7%, P = 0.03). Moreover, the number of patients developing renal failure requiring hemodialysis was significantly lower in the antivenom group (5.3% vs. 40.0%, P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: In our small retrospective study, antivenom administration was likely to be effective in the management of R. tigrinus bites. Apparently, further research is required to confirm its efficacy. More... »

PAGES

44

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URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s40560-014-0044-5

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40560-014-0044-5

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PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25520846


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