Next-generation sequencing analysis reveals high bacterial diversity in wild venomous and non-venomous snakes from India. View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2018-12-22

AUTHORS

Sajesh Puthenpurackal Krishnankutty, Megha Muraleedharan, Rajadurai Chinnasamy Perumal, Saju Michael, Jubina Benny, Bipin Balan, Pramod Kumar, Jishnu Manazhi, Bangaruswamy Dhinoth Kumar, Sam Santhosh, George Thomas, Ravi Gupta, Arun Zachariah

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe oral cavities of snakes are replete with various types of bacterial flora. Culture-dependent studies suggest that some of the bacterial species are responsible for secondary bacterial infection associated with snakebite. A complete profile of the ophidian oral bacterial community has been unreported until now. Therefore, in the present study, we determined the complete bacterial compositions in the oral cavity of some snakes from India.MethodsTotal DNA was isolated from oral swabs collected from three wild snake species (Indian Cobra, King Cobra and Indian Python). Next, the DNA was subjected to PCR amplification of microbial 16S rRNA gene using V3-region-specific primers. The amplicons were used for preparation of DNA libraries that were sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq platform.ResultsThe cluster-based taxonomy analysis revealed that Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the most predominant phyla present in the oral cavities of snakes. This result indicates that snakes show more similarities to birds than mammals as to their oral bacterial communities. Furthermore, our study reports all the unique and common bacterial species (total: 147) found among the oral microbes of snakes studied, while the majority of commonly abundant species were pathogens or opportunistic pathogens to humans. A wide difference in ophidian oral bacterial flora suggests variation by individual, species and geographical region.ConclusionThe present study would provide a foundation for further research on snakes to recognize the potential drugs/antibiotics for the different infectious diseases. More... »

PAGES

41

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2011-09-30. Identification of bacteria from the oral cavity and cloaca of snakes imported from Vietnam in LABORATORY ANIMAL RESEARCH
  • 2016-02-03. Marine mammals harbor unique microbiotas shaped by and yet distinct from the sea in NATURE COMMUNICATIONS
  • 2015-04-30. Reptiles as Reservoirs of Bacterial Infections: Real Threat or Methodological Bias? in MICROBIAL ECOLOGY
  • 2011-12-01. An improved Greengenes taxonomy with explicit ranks for ecological and evolutionary analyses of bacteria and archaea in THE ISME JOURNAL: MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF MICROBIAL ECOLOGY
  • 2017-04-04. Heterologous fibrin sealant derived from snake venom: from bench to bedside – an overview in JOURNAL OF VENOMOUS ANIMALS AND TOXINS INCLUDING TROPICAL DISEASES
  • 2010-06-03. Postprandial remodeling of the gut microbiota in Burmese pythons in THE ISME JOURNAL: MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF MICROBIAL ECOLOGY
  • 2015-05-11. Variation in koala microbiomes within and between individuals: effect of body region and captivity status in SCIENTIFIC REPORTS
  • 2015-05-28. Antibacterial potential of a basic phospholipase A2 (VRV-PL-VIIIa) from Daboia russelii pulchella (Russell’s viper) venom in JOURNAL OF VENOMOUS ANIMALS AND TOXINS INCLUDING TROPICAL DISEASES
  • 2011-11-25. Bacterial biogeography of the human digestive tract in SCIENTIFIC REPORTS
  • 2015-02-07. Metagenomic analysis of the gut microbiota of the Timber Rattlesnake, Crotalus horridus in MOLECULAR BIOLOGY REPORTS
  • 2017-07-21. Assessment of Cultivable Oral Bacterial Flora from Important Venomous Snakes of India and Their Antibiotic Susceptibilities in CURRENT MICROBIOLOGY
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s40409-018-0181-8

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40409-018-0181-8

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1110835496

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30598660


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/06", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Biological Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0604", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Genetics", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0605", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Microbiology", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "SciGenom Research Foundation, 679531, Cheruthuruthy, Kerala, India", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.511379.8", 
              "name": [
                "AgriGenome Labs Pvt. Ltd., SmartCity Kochi, 682042, Kakkanad, Kerala, India", 
                "SciGenom Research Foundation, 679531, Cheruthuruthy, Kerala, India"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Krishnankutty", 
            "givenName": "Sajesh Puthenpurackal", 
            "id": "sg:person.015402523333.65", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015402523333.65"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "AgriGenome Labs Pvt. Ltd., SmartCity Kochi, 682042, Kakkanad, Kerala, India", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/None", 
              "name": [
                "AgriGenome Labs Pvt. Ltd., SmartCity Kochi, 682042, Kakkanad, Kerala, India"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Muraleedharan", 
            "givenName": "Megha", 
            "id": "sg:person.010272413133.54", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010272413133.54"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "AgriGenome Labs Pvt. Ltd., SmartCity Kochi, 682042, Kakkanad, Kerala, India", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/None", 
              "name": [
                "AgriGenome Labs Pvt. Ltd., SmartCity Kochi, 682042, Kakkanad, Kerala, India"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Perumal", 
            "givenName": "Rajadurai Chinnasamy", 
            "id": "sg:person.011254326147.05", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011254326147.05"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "AgriGenome Labs Pvt. Ltd., SmartCity Kochi, 682042, Kakkanad, Kerala, India", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/None", 
              "name": [
                "AgriGenome Labs Pvt. Ltd., SmartCity Kochi, 682042, Kakkanad, Kerala, India"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Michael", 
            "givenName": "Saju", 
            "id": "sg:person.014055675533.32", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014055675533.32"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "AgriGenome Labs Pvt. Ltd., SmartCity Kochi, 682042, Kakkanad, Kerala, India", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/None", 
              "name": [
                "AgriGenome Labs Pvt. Ltd., SmartCity Kochi, 682042, Kakkanad, Kerala, India"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Benny", 
            "givenName": "Jubina", 
            "id": "sg:person.010443501300.28", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010443501300.28"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "AgriGenome Labs Pvt. Ltd., SmartCity Kochi, 682042, Kakkanad, Kerala, India", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/None", 
              "name": [
                "AgriGenome Labs Pvt. Ltd., SmartCity Kochi, 682042, Kakkanad, Kerala, India"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Balan", 
            "givenName": "Bipin", 
            "id": "sg:person.07763126653.03", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07763126653.03"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "AgriGenome Labs Pvt. Ltd., SmartCity Kochi, 682042, Kakkanad, Kerala, India", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/None", 
              "name": [
                "AgriGenome Labs Pvt. Ltd., SmartCity Kochi, 682042, Kakkanad, Kerala, India"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Kumar", 
            "givenName": "Pramod", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Forests and Wildlife, Sulthan Batheri, 673592, Wayanad District, Kerala, India", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/None", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Forests and Wildlife, Sulthan Batheri, 673592, Wayanad District, Kerala, India"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Manazhi", 
            "givenName": "Jishnu", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "AgriGenome Labs Pvt. Ltd., SmartCity Kochi, 682042, Kakkanad, Kerala, India", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/None", 
              "name": [
                "AgriGenome Labs Pvt. Ltd., SmartCity Kochi, 682042, Kakkanad, Kerala, India"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Kumar", 
            "givenName": "Bangaruswamy Dhinoth", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "AgriGenome Labs Pvt. Ltd., SmartCity Kochi, 682042, Kakkanad, Kerala, India", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/None", 
              "name": [
                "AgriGenome Labs Pvt. Ltd., SmartCity Kochi, 682042, Kakkanad, Kerala, India"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Santhosh", 
            "givenName": "Sam", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "SciGenom Research Foundation, 679531, Cheruthuruthy, Kerala, India", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.511379.8", 
              "name": [
                "SciGenom Research Foundation, 679531, Cheruthuruthy, Kerala, India"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Thomas", 
            "givenName": "George", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Medgenome Labs Pvt. Ltd., Narayana Health City, Bommasandra, 560099, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.416504.2", 
              "name": [
                "Medgenome Labs Pvt. Ltd., Narayana Health City, Bommasandra, 560099, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Gupta", 
            "givenName": "Ravi", 
            "id": "sg:person.0722566303.13", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0722566303.13"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Forests and Wildlife, Sulthan Batheri, 673592, Wayanad District, Kerala, India", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/None", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Forests and Wildlife, Sulthan Batheri, 673592, Wayanad District, Kerala, India"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Zachariah", 
            "givenName": "Arun", 
            "id": "sg:person.015565065133.18", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015565065133.18"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms10516", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024125450", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms10516"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ismej.2011.139", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051863807", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2011.139"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11033-015-3854-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029499511", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-015-3854-1"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/srep00170", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034157141", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/srep00170"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/srep10189", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013926328", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/srep10189"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s40409-015-0014-y", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021051762", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/s40409-015-0014-y"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00284-017-1313-z", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1090852234", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00284-017-1313-z"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00248-015-0618-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023497699", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-015-0618-3"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.5625/lar.2011.27.3.213", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028690424", 
              "https://doi.org/10.5625/lar.2011.27.3.213"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ismej.2010.71", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004755333", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2010.71"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s40409-017-0109-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1084612701", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/s40409-017-0109-8"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2018-12-22", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2018-12-22", 
        "description": "BackgroundThe oral cavities of snakes are replete with various types of bacterial flora. Culture-dependent studies suggest that some of the bacterial species are responsible for secondary bacterial infection associated with snakebite. A complete profile of the ophidian oral bacterial community has been unreported until now. Therefore, in the present study, we determined the complete bacterial compositions in the oral cavity of some snakes from India.MethodsTotal DNA was isolated from oral swabs collected from three wild snake species (Indian Cobra, King Cobra and Indian Python). Next, the DNA was subjected to PCR amplification of microbial 16S rRNA gene using V3-region-specific primers. The amplicons were used for preparation of DNA libraries that were sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq\u00a0platform.ResultsThe cluster-based taxonomy analysis revealed that Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the most predominant phyla present in the oral cavities of snakes. This result indicates that snakes show more similarities to birds than mammals as to their oral bacterial communities. Furthermore, our study reports all the unique and common bacterial species (total: 147) found among the oral microbes of snakes studied, while the majority of commonly abundant species were pathogens or opportunistic pathogens to humans. A wide difference in ophidian oral bacterial flora suggests variation by individual, species and geographical region.ConclusionThe present study would provide a foundation for further research on snakes to recognize the potential drugs/antibiotics for the different infectious diseases.", 
        "genre": "article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s40409-018-0181-8", 
        "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1357529", 
            "issn": [
              "1678-9180", 
              "1678-9199"
            ], 
            "name": "Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases", 
            "publisher": "Springer Nature", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "1", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "24"
          }
        ], 
        "keywords": [
          "bacterial communities", 
          "oral bacterial communities", 
          "bacterial species", 
          "culture-dependent studies", 
          "microbial 16S rRNA genes", 
          "higher bacterial diversity", 
          "DNA library", 
          "rRNA gene", 
          "bacterial diversity", 
          "abundant species", 
          "snake species", 
          "predominant phyla", 
          "next-generation sequencing analysis", 
          "Illumina MiSeq", 
          "non-venomous snakes", 
          "common bacterial species", 
          "sequencing analysis", 
          "bacterial flora", 
          "bacterial composition", 
          "species", 
          "opportunistic pathogen", 
          "PCR amplification", 
          "taxonomy analysis", 
          "snakes", 
          "oral microbes", 
          "DNA", 
          "oral bacterial flora", 
          "flora", 
          "pathogens", 
          "oral cavity", 
          "phyla", 
          "Actinobacteria", 
          "Proteobacteria", 
          "mammals", 
          "genes", 
          "microbes", 
          "geographical regions", 
          "MiSeq", 
          "bacterial infections", 
          "birds", 
          "more similarities", 
          "secondary bacterial infection", 
          "diversity", 
          "present study", 
          "amplicons", 
          "complete profile", 
          "different infectious diseases", 
          "ConclusionThe present study", 
          "primers", 
          "community", 
          "oral swabs", 
          "infectious diseases", 
          "wide differences", 
          "amplification", 
          "similarity", 
          "library", 
          "humans", 
          "region", 
          "variation", 
          "analysis", 
          "composition", 
          "study", 
          "further research", 
          "infection", 
          "snakebite", 
          "antibiotics", 
          "disease", 
          "swabs", 
          "profile", 
          "cavity", 
          "types", 
          "majority", 
          "India", 
          "differences", 
          "results", 
          "platform", 
          "foundation", 
          "preparation", 
          "research"
        ], 
        "name": "Next-generation sequencing analysis reveals high bacterial diversity in wild venomous and non-venomous snakes from India.", 
        "pagination": "41", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1110835496"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1186/s40409-018-0181-8"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "pubmed_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "30598660"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/s40409-018-0181-8", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1110835496"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2022-11-24T21:03", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-springernature-scigraph/baseset/20221124/entities/gbq_results/article/article_775.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://doi.org/10.1186/s40409-018-0181-8"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s40409-018-0181-8'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s40409-018-0181-8'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s40409-018-0181-8'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s40409-018-0181-8'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    276 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      116 URIs      96 LITERALS      7 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1186/s40409-018-0181-8 schema:about anzsrc-for:06
    2 anzsrc-for:0604
    3 anzsrc-for:0605
    4 schema:author N84c05d0ec61e4cfa9d2ce5e6660a97db
    5 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/s00248-015-0618-3
    6 sg:pub.10.1007/s00284-017-1313-z
    7 sg:pub.10.1007/s11033-015-3854-1
    8 sg:pub.10.1038/ismej.2010.71
    9 sg:pub.10.1038/ismej.2011.139
    10 sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms10516
    11 sg:pub.10.1038/srep00170
    12 sg:pub.10.1038/srep10189
    13 sg:pub.10.1186/s40409-015-0014-y
    14 sg:pub.10.1186/s40409-017-0109-8
    15 sg:pub.10.5625/lar.2011.27.3.213
    16 schema:datePublished 2018-12-22
    17 schema:datePublishedReg 2018-12-22
    18 schema:description BackgroundThe oral cavities of snakes are replete with various types of bacterial flora. Culture-dependent studies suggest that some of the bacterial species are responsible for secondary bacterial infection associated with snakebite. A complete profile of the ophidian oral bacterial community has been unreported until now. Therefore, in the present study, we determined the complete bacterial compositions in the oral cavity of some snakes from India.MethodsTotal DNA was isolated from oral swabs collected from three wild snake species (Indian Cobra, King Cobra and Indian Python). Next, the DNA was subjected to PCR amplification of microbial 16S rRNA gene using V3-region-specific primers. The amplicons were used for preparation of DNA libraries that were sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq platform.ResultsThe cluster-based taxonomy analysis revealed that Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the most predominant phyla present in the oral cavities of snakes. This result indicates that snakes show more similarities to birds than mammals as to their oral bacterial communities. Furthermore, our study reports all the unique and common bacterial species (total: 147) found among the oral microbes of snakes studied, while the majority of commonly abundant species were pathogens or opportunistic pathogens to humans. A wide difference in ophidian oral bacterial flora suggests variation by individual, species and geographical region.ConclusionThe present study would provide a foundation for further research on snakes to recognize the potential drugs/antibiotics for the different infectious diseases.
    19 schema:genre article
    20 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
    21 schema:isPartOf N2e147b363fcc44a28a0e9135f34237cb
    22 N801a8f4c4e154566a5fc3ac711d32da8
    23 sg:journal.1357529
    24 schema:keywords Actinobacteria
    25 ConclusionThe present study
    26 DNA
    27 DNA library
    28 Illumina MiSeq
    29 India
    30 MiSeq
    31 PCR amplification
    32 Proteobacteria
    33 abundant species
    34 amplicons
    35 amplification
    36 analysis
    37 antibiotics
    38 bacterial communities
    39 bacterial composition
    40 bacterial diversity
    41 bacterial flora
    42 bacterial infections
    43 bacterial species
    44 birds
    45 cavity
    46 common bacterial species
    47 community
    48 complete profile
    49 composition
    50 culture-dependent studies
    51 differences
    52 different infectious diseases
    53 disease
    54 diversity
    55 flora
    56 foundation
    57 further research
    58 genes
    59 geographical regions
    60 higher bacterial diversity
    61 humans
    62 infection
    63 infectious diseases
    64 library
    65 majority
    66 mammals
    67 microbes
    68 microbial 16S rRNA genes
    69 more similarities
    70 next-generation sequencing analysis
    71 non-venomous snakes
    72 opportunistic pathogen
    73 oral bacterial communities
    74 oral bacterial flora
    75 oral cavity
    76 oral microbes
    77 oral swabs
    78 pathogens
    79 phyla
    80 platform
    81 predominant phyla
    82 preparation
    83 present study
    84 primers
    85 profile
    86 rRNA gene
    87 region
    88 research
    89 results
    90 secondary bacterial infection
    91 sequencing analysis
    92 similarity
    93 snake species
    94 snakebite
    95 snakes
    96 species
    97 study
    98 swabs
    99 taxonomy analysis
    100 types
    101 variation
    102 wide differences
    103 schema:name Next-generation sequencing analysis reveals high bacterial diversity in wild venomous and non-venomous snakes from India.
    104 schema:pagination 41
    105 schema:productId N72660eceb14c4c58b1d5bc956f1ebb1f
    106 N7a06221efe9f4cc0a6eb4445355679a9
    107 Na6605d68837c427b977091be29f336b3
    108 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1110835496
    109 https://doi.org/10.1186/s40409-018-0181-8
    110 schema:sdDatePublished 2022-11-24T21:03
    111 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    112 schema:sdPublisher Na8cf05353ce24605a2199435d276ef95
    113 schema:url https://doi.org/10.1186/s40409-018-0181-8
    114 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    115 sgo:sdDataset articles
    116 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    117 N1a66a71ea1e74f15b4edc4fc79c2bed9 rdf:first N76755e25b32643a58d9ae4e22bb01136
    118 rdf:rest N23928695b0814b878369bee7c87516a0
    119 N1de06a668a6b4dbf83cbabe414f45c16 rdf:first sg:person.014055675533.32
    120 rdf:rest Nc725a673112748b2a926ea8ca1013070
    121 N23928695b0814b878369bee7c87516a0 rdf:first N5f574fcc194540c09c634eef1f293cdd
    122 rdf:rest N6a871e04336c4f1c96cceaa767f46516
    123 N2e147b363fcc44a28a0e9135f34237cb schema:issueNumber 1
    124 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    125 N42f2cb7d591a4f1684c9507eec3db0ad rdf:first sg:person.010272413133.54
    126 rdf:rest N976d1f71d87141179e5c5f18dd02ebd7
    127 N5000ab49a70643a58112d8462d5c54fd schema:affiliation grid-institutes:None
    128 schema:familyName Kumar
    129 schema:givenName Bangaruswamy Dhinoth
    130 rdf:type schema:Person
    131 N5bdb6414d29e4c78b84dabcb2dfb189f schema:affiliation grid-institutes:None
    132 schema:familyName Santhosh
    133 schema:givenName Sam
    134 rdf:type schema:Person
    135 N5f574fcc194540c09c634eef1f293cdd schema:affiliation grid-institutes:None
    136 schema:familyName Manazhi
    137 schema:givenName Jishnu
    138 rdf:type schema:Person
    139 N6a871e04336c4f1c96cceaa767f46516 rdf:first N5000ab49a70643a58112d8462d5c54fd
    140 rdf:rest Ne8adbd74f4724faf9e94b239c4dfe093
    141 N72660eceb14c4c58b1d5bc956f1ebb1f schema:name dimensions_id
    142 schema:value pub.1110835496
    143 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    144 N76755e25b32643a58d9ae4e22bb01136 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:None
    145 schema:familyName Kumar
    146 schema:givenName Pramod
    147 rdf:type schema:Person
    148 N7a06221efe9f4cc0a6eb4445355679a9 schema:name doi
    149 schema:value 10.1186/s40409-018-0181-8
    150 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    151 N7d2ea6f77ff74f26b1f027689b4fedb6 rdf:first sg:person.015565065133.18
    152 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    153 N801a8f4c4e154566a5fc3ac711d32da8 schema:volumeNumber 24
    154 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    155 N84c05d0ec61e4cfa9d2ce5e6660a97db rdf:first sg:person.015402523333.65
    156 rdf:rest N42f2cb7d591a4f1684c9507eec3db0ad
    157 N976d1f71d87141179e5c5f18dd02ebd7 rdf:first sg:person.011254326147.05
    158 rdf:rest N1de06a668a6b4dbf83cbabe414f45c16
    159 Na6605d68837c427b977091be29f336b3 schema:name pubmed_id
    160 schema:value 30598660
    161 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    162 Na8cf05353ce24605a2199435d276ef95 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    163 rdf:type schema:Organization
    164 Nb596ed1ace1946bb942ab92593d7ba42 rdf:first Nb8128f02b62f439b9ab74bb3f985c5cb
    165 rdf:rest Nd6ca447d33784ebeadfe900f439358f8
    166 Nb8128f02b62f439b9ab74bb3f985c5cb schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.511379.8
    167 schema:familyName Thomas
    168 schema:givenName George
    169 rdf:type schema:Person
    170 Nc725a673112748b2a926ea8ca1013070 rdf:first sg:person.010443501300.28
    171 rdf:rest Ncdb4cec84b734e7ea394bf8518eb638a
    172 Ncdb4cec84b734e7ea394bf8518eb638a rdf:first sg:person.07763126653.03
    173 rdf:rest N1a66a71ea1e74f15b4edc4fc79c2bed9
    174 Nd6ca447d33784ebeadfe900f439358f8 rdf:first sg:person.0722566303.13
    175 rdf:rest N7d2ea6f77ff74f26b1f027689b4fedb6
    176 Ne8adbd74f4724faf9e94b239c4dfe093 rdf:first N5bdb6414d29e4c78b84dabcb2dfb189f
    177 rdf:rest Nb596ed1ace1946bb942ab92593d7ba42
    178 anzsrc-for:06 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    179 schema:name Biological Sciences
    180 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    181 anzsrc-for:0604 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    182 schema:name Genetics
    183 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    184 anzsrc-for:0605 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    185 schema:name Microbiology
    186 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    187 sg:journal.1357529 schema:issn 1678-9180
    188 1678-9199
    189 schema:name Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases
    190 schema:publisher Springer Nature
    191 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    192 sg:person.010272413133.54 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:None
    193 schema:familyName Muraleedharan
    194 schema:givenName Megha
    195 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010272413133.54
    196 rdf:type schema:Person
    197 sg:person.010443501300.28 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:None
    198 schema:familyName Benny
    199 schema:givenName Jubina
    200 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010443501300.28
    201 rdf:type schema:Person
    202 sg:person.011254326147.05 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:None
    203 schema:familyName Perumal
    204 schema:givenName Rajadurai Chinnasamy
    205 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011254326147.05
    206 rdf:type schema:Person
    207 sg:person.014055675533.32 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:None
    208 schema:familyName Michael
    209 schema:givenName Saju
    210 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014055675533.32
    211 rdf:type schema:Person
    212 sg:person.015402523333.65 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.511379.8
    213 schema:familyName Krishnankutty
    214 schema:givenName Sajesh Puthenpurackal
    215 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015402523333.65
    216 rdf:type schema:Person
    217 sg:person.015565065133.18 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:None
    218 schema:familyName Zachariah
    219 schema:givenName Arun
    220 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015565065133.18
    221 rdf:type schema:Person
    222 sg:person.0722566303.13 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.416504.2
    223 schema:familyName Gupta
    224 schema:givenName Ravi
    225 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0722566303.13
    226 rdf:type schema:Person
    227 sg:person.07763126653.03 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:None
    228 schema:familyName Balan
    229 schema:givenName Bipin
    230 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07763126653.03
    231 rdf:type schema:Person
    232 sg:pub.10.1007/s00248-015-0618-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023497699
    233 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-015-0618-3
    234 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    235 sg:pub.10.1007/s00284-017-1313-z schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1090852234
    236 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00284-017-1313-z
    237 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    238 sg:pub.10.1007/s11033-015-3854-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029499511
    239 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-015-3854-1
    240 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    241 sg:pub.10.1038/ismej.2010.71 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004755333
    242 https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2010.71
    243 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    244 sg:pub.10.1038/ismej.2011.139 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051863807
    245 https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2011.139
    246 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    247 sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms10516 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024125450
    248 https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms10516
    249 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    250 sg:pub.10.1038/srep00170 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034157141
    251 https://doi.org/10.1038/srep00170
    252 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    253 sg:pub.10.1038/srep10189 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013926328
    254 https://doi.org/10.1038/srep10189
    255 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    256 sg:pub.10.1186/s40409-015-0014-y schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021051762
    257 https://doi.org/10.1186/s40409-015-0014-y
    258 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    259 sg:pub.10.1186/s40409-017-0109-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1084612701
    260 https://doi.org/10.1186/s40409-017-0109-8
    261 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    262 sg:pub.10.5625/lar.2011.27.3.213 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028690424
    263 https://doi.org/10.5625/lar.2011.27.3.213
    264 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    265 grid-institutes:None schema:alternateName AgriGenome Labs Pvt. Ltd., SmartCity Kochi, 682042, Kakkanad, Kerala, India
    266 Department of Forests and Wildlife, Sulthan Batheri, 673592, Wayanad District, Kerala, India
    267 schema:name AgriGenome Labs Pvt. Ltd., SmartCity Kochi, 682042, Kakkanad, Kerala, India
    268 Department of Forests and Wildlife, Sulthan Batheri, 673592, Wayanad District, Kerala, India
    269 rdf:type schema:Organization
    270 grid-institutes:grid.416504.2 schema:alternateName Medgenome Labs Pvt. Ltd., Narayana Health City, Bommasandra, 560099, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
    271 schema:name Medgenome Labs Pvt. Ltd., Narayana Health City, Bommasandra, 560099, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
    272 rdf:type schema:Organization
    273 grid-institutes:grid.511379.8 schema:alternateName SciGenom Research Foundation, 679531, Cheruthuruthy, Kerala, India
    274 schema:name AgriGenome Labs Pvt. Ltd., SmartCity Kochi, 682042, Kakkanad, Kerala, India
    275 SciGenom Research Foundation, 679531, Cheruthuruthy, Kerala, India
    276 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...