Testing times: the association of intolerance of uncertainty and metacognitive beliefs to test anxiety in college students View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2022-01-05

AUTHORS

Christopher Huntley, Bridget Young, Catrin Tudur Smith, Vikram Jha, Peter Fisher

ABSTRACT

BackgroundTest anxiety has a detrimental effect on test performance but current interventions for test anxiety have limited efficacy. Therefore, examination of newer psychological models of test anxiety is now required. Two transdiagnostic psychological models of emotional disorders that can account for anxiety are the intolerance of uncertainty model (IUM) and the Self-Regulatory Executive Function (S-REF) model. Intolerance of uncertainty, the stable disposition to find uncertainty distressing, is central to the IUM, while beliefs about thinking, metacognition, are central to the S-REF model. We tested for the first time the role of both intolerance of uncertainty and metacognitive beliefs in test anxiety. MethodsA cross-sectional design was used, with college students (n = 675) completing questionnaires assessing their test anxiety, intolerance of uncertainty, and metacognitive beliefs. Hierarchical linear regressions examined if intolerance of uncertainty and metacognitive beliefs were associated with test anxiety, after controlling for age and gender.ResultsFemales reported significantly more test anxiety than males. Partial correlations, controlling for gender, found intolerance of uncertainty and metacognitive beliefs were significantly and positively correlated with test anxiety. Hierarchical linear regressions found metacognitive beliefs explained an additional 13% of variance in test anxiety, after controlling for intolerance of uncertainty. When the order of entry was reversed, intolerance of uncertainty was only able to explain an additional 2% of variance, after controlling for metacognitive beliefs. In the final regression model, gender, intolerance of uncertainty and the metacognitive belief domains of ‘negative beliefs about the uncontrollability and danger of worry’ and ‘cognitive confidence’ were all significantly associated test anxiety, with ‘negative beliefs about the uncontrollability and danger of worry’ having the largest association.ConclusionsBoth intolerance of uncertainty and metacognitive beliefs are linked to test anxiety, but results suggest metacognitive beliefs have more explanatory utility, providing greater support for the S-REF model. Modification of intolerance of uncertainty and metacognitive beliefs could alleviate test anxiety and help students fulfil their academic potential. More... »

PAGES

6

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s40359-021-00710-7

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40359-021-00710-7

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https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1144446529

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34986890


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