How elimination of lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem in the Kingdom of Cambodia was achieved View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2018-02-20

AUTHORS

Virak Khieu, Vandine Or, Chhakda Tep, Peter Odermatt, Reiko Tsuyuoka, Meng Chuor Char, Molly A. Brady, Joshua Sidwell, Aya Yajima, Rekol Huy, Kapa D. Ramaiah, Sinuon Muth

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endemicity of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Cambodia was proven in 1956 when microfilariae were detected in mosquitos in the Kratié province. In 2001, an extensive study confirmed the presence of both Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae. In 2003, the Ministry of Health established a national task force to develop policies and strategies for controlling and eliminating neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), with the goal of eliminating LF by 2015. This article summarizes the work accomplished to eliminate LF as a public health problem in Cambodia. METHODS: The National Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis made excellent progress in the goal towards elimination due to strong collaboration between ministries, intensive supervision by national staff, and advocacy for mobilization of internal and external resources. Mass drug administration (MDA) with diethylcarbamazine citrate and albendazole was conducted in six implementation units, achieving > 70% epidemiological coverage for five consecutive rounds, from 2005 to 2009. In 2006, in 14 provinces, healthcare workers developed a line list of lymphedema and hydrocele patients, many of whom were > 40 years old and had been affected by LF for many years. The national program also trained healthcare workers and provincial and district staff in morbidity management and disability prevention, and designated health centers to provide care for lymphedema and acute attack. Two reference hospitals were designated to administer hydrocele surgery. RESULTS: Effectiveness of MDA was proven with transmission assessment surveys. These found that less than 1% of school children had antigenemia in 2010, which fell to 0% in both 2013 and 2015. A separate survey in one province in 2015 using Brugia Rapid tests to test for LF antibody found one child positive among 1677 children. The list of chronic LF patients was most recently updated and confirmed in 2011-2012, with 32 lymphoedema patients and 17 hydrocele patients listed. All lymphedema patients had been trained on self-management and all hydrocele patients had been offered free surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the success of the MDA and the development of health center capacity for patient care, along with benefits gained from socioeconomic improvements and other interventions against vector-borne diseases and NTDs, Cambodia was validated by the World Health Organization as achieving LF elimination as a public health problem in 2016. More... »

PAGES

15

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s40249-018-0394-7

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-018-0394-7

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1101134335

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29463307


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70 effectiveness
71 effectiveness of MDA
72 elimination
73 endemicity
74 epidemiological coverage
75 excellent progress
76 extensive study
77 external resources
78 filariasis
79 force
80 free surgery
81 goal
82 health
83 health center capacity
84 health centers
85 health problems
86 healthcare workers
87 hospital
88 hydrocele patients
89 hydrocele surgery
90 improvement
91 intensive supervision
92 intervention
93 line list
94 list
95 lymphatic filariasis
96 lymphedema
97 lymphedema patients
98 lymphoedema patients
99 malayi
100 management
101 mass drug administration
102 microfilariae
103 mobilization
104 morbidity management
105 mosquitoes
106 national program
107 national staff
108 organization
109 patient care
110 patients
111 policy
112 presence
113 prevention
114 problem
115 program
116 progress
117 public health problem
118 rapid test
119 reference hospital
120 resources
121 rounds
122 school children
123 separate surveys
124 socioeconomic improvement
125 staff
126 strategies
127 strong collaboration
128 study
129 success
130 supervision
131 surgery
132 survey
133 test
134 transmission assessment surveys
135 tropical diseases
136 units
137 vector-borne diseases
138 work
139 workers
140 years
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