Antiretroviral therapy related adverse effects: Can sub-Saharan Africa cope with the new “test and treat” policy of the World Health ... View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2017-12

AUTHORS

Jobert Richie N. Nansseu, Jean Joel R. Bigna

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation results in significant HIV transmission reduction. This is the rationale behind the "test and treat" policy of the World Health Organization (WHO). Implementation of this policy will lead to an increased incidence of ART-related adverse effects, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Is the region yet ready to cope with such a challenging issue? MAIN BODY: The introduction and widespread use of ART have drastically changed the natural history of HIV/AIDS, but exposure to ART leads to serious medication-related adverse effects mainly explained by mitochondrial toxicities, and the situation will get worse in the near future. Indeed, ART is associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, lipodystrophy, prediabetes and overt diabetes, insulin resistance and hyperlactatemia/lactic acidosis. The prevalence of these disorders is already high in SSA, and the situation will be exacerbated by the implementation of the new WHO recommendations. Most SSA countries are characterized by (extreme) poverty, very weak health systems, inadequate and low quality of health services, inaccessibility to existing health facilities, lack of (qualified) health personnel, lack of adequate equipment, inaccessibility and unaffordability of medicines, and heavy workload in a context of a double burden of disease. Additionally, there is dearth of data on the incidence and predictive factors of ART-related adverse effects in SSA, to anticipate on strategies that should be put in place to prevent the occurrence of these conditions or properly estimate the upcoming burden and prepare an adequate response plan. These are required if we are to anticipate and effectively prevent this upcoming burden. CONCLUSION: While SSA would be the first region to experience the huge benefits of implementing the "test and treat" policy of the WHO, the region is not yet prepared to manage the consequential increased burden of ART-related toxic and metabolic complications. Urgent measures should be taken to fill the lacunae if SSA is not to become over-burdened by the consequences of the "test and treat" policy. More... »

PAGES

24

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s40249-017-0240-3

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-017-0240-3

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083825196

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28196511


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RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

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