The X chromosome and sex-specific effects in infectious disease susceptibility View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2019-12

AUTHORS

Haiko Schurz, Muneeb Salie, Gerard Tromp, Eileen G. Hoal, Craig J. Kinnear, Marlo Möller

ABSTRACT

The X chromosome and X-linked variants have largely been ignored in genome-wide and candidate association studies of infectious diseases due to the complexity of statistical analysis of the X chromosome. This exclusion is significant, since the X chromosome contains a high density of immune-related genes and regulatory elements that are extensively involved in both the innate and adaptive immune responses. Many diseases present with a clear sex bias, and apart from the influence of sex hormones and socioeconomic and behavioural factors, the X chromosome, X-linked genes and X chromosome inactivation mechanisms contribute to this difference. Females are functional mosaics for X-linked genes due to X chromosome inactivation and this, combined with other X chromosome inactivation mechanisms such as genes that escape silencing and skewed inactivation, could contribute to an immunological advantage for females in many infections. In this review, we discuss the involvement of the X chromosome and X inactivation in immunity and address its role in sexual dimorphism of infectious diseases using tuberculosis susceptibility as an example, in which male sex bias is clear, yet not fully explored. More... »

PAGES

2

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2011-06. Gender Specific Differences in the Immune Response to Infection in ARCHIVUM IMMUNOLOGIAE ET THERAPIAE EXPERIMENTALIS
  • 2008-12. Shape-IT: new rapid and accurate algorithm for haplotype inference in BMC BIOINFORMATICS
  • 2001-01. X-chromosome inactivation: counting, choice and initiation in NATURE REVIEWS GENETICS
  • 2006-05. TLR signaling in CELL DEATH & DIFFERENTIATION
  • 2013-12. Human X-chromosome inactivation pattern distributions fit a model of genetically influenced choice better than models of completely random choice in EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS
  • 2010-08. The X chromosome in immune functions: when a chromosome makes the difference in NATURE REVIEWS IMMUNOLOGY
  • 2003-10. Variants of the CD40 ligand gene are not associated with increased susceptibility to tuberculosis in West Africa in IMMUNOGENETICS
  • 1988-09. Effect of ageing on reactivation of the human X-linked HPRT locus in NATURE
  • 2010-07. Predictors of Mortality in Skin and Soft-tissue Infections Caused by Vibrio vulnificus in WORLD JOURNAL OF SURGERY
  • 2016-10. Sex differences in immune responses in NATURE REVIEWS IMMUNOLOGY
  • 1971-08. Possible Mechanisms of <i>X</i> Chromosome Inactivation in NATURE
  • 2015-12. Second-generation PLINK: rising to the challenge of larger and richer datasets in GIGASCIENCE
  • 1997-10. Candida albicans morphogenesis is influenced by estrogen in CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR LIFE SCIENCES
  • 2009-08. Sex differences in the Toll-like receptor–mediated response of plasmacytoid dendritic cells to HIV-1 in NATURE MEDICINE
  • 2010-08. X Chromosome Inactivation and Autoimmunity in CLINICAL REVIEWS IN ALLERGY & IMMUNOLOGY
  • 1987-06. Age related reactivation of an X-linked gene in NATURE
  • 2000-10. Age- and tissue-specific variation of X chromosome inactivation ratios in normal women in HUMAN GENETICS
  • 2013-03. XACT, a long noncoding transcript coating the active X chromosome in human pluripotent cells in NATURE GENETICS
  • 2011-08. Genes that escape from X inactivation in HUMAN GENETICS
  • 2017-09-22. Host-directed therapies for bacterial and viral infections in NATURE REVIEWS DRUG DISCOVERY
  • 2009-09. X chromosome inactivation in clinical practice in HUMAN GENETICS
  • 1997-11. A promoter mutation in the XIST gene in two unrelated families with skewed X-chromosome inactivation in NATURE GENETICS
  • 1991-01. A gene from the region of the human X inactivation centre is expressed exclusively from the inactive X chromosome in NATURE
  • 1961-04. Gene Action in the X-chromosome of the Mouse (Mus musculus L.) in NATURE
  • 2008-09. The X-files in immunity: sex-based differences predispose immune responses in NATURE REVIEWS IMMUNOLOGY
  • 2010-06. Escape from X inactivation in mice and humans in GENOME BIOLOGY
  • 2011-04. Eutherian mammals use diverse strategies to initiate X-chromosome inactivation during development in NATURE
  • 2017-01. Tumor-suppressor genes that escape from X-inactivation contribute to cancer sex bias in NATURE GENETICS
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s40246-018-0185-z

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40246-018-0185-z

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1111263827

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30621780


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0604", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Genetics", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/06", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Biological Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Stellenbosch University", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11956.3a", 
              "name": [
                "DST-NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, South African Medical Research Council Centre for Tuberculosis Research, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa", 
                "South African Tuberculosis Bioinformatics Initiative (SATBBI), Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Schurz", 
            "givenName": "Haiko", 
            "id": "sg:person.01150121565.61", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01150121565.61"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "St. Jude Children's Research Hospital", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.240871.8", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Genetics, St. Jude Children\u2019s Research Hospital, 38105, Memphis, TN, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Salie", 
            "givenName": "Muneeb", 
            "id": "sg:person.0622243554.85", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0622243554.85"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Stellenbosch University", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11956.3a", 
              "name": [
                "DST-NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, South African Medical Research Council Centre for Tuberculosis Research, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa", 
                "South African Tuberculosis Bioinformatics Initiative (SATBBI), Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Tromp", 
            "givenName": "Gerard", 
            "id": "sg:person.07675140577.42", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07675140577.42"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Stellenbosch University", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11956.3a", 
              "name": [
                "DST-NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, South African Medical Research Council Centre for Tuberculosis Research, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Hoal", 
            "givenName": "Eileen G.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01342424061.37", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01342424061.37"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Stellenbosch University", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11956.3a", 
              "name": [
                "DST-NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, South African Medical Research Council Centre for Tuberculosis Research, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Kinnear", 
            "givenName": "Craig J.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01250760004.41", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01250760004.41"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Stellenbosch University", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11956.3a", 
              "name": [
                "DST-NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, South African Medical Research Council Centre for Tuberculosis Research, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "M\u00f6ller", 
            "givenName": "Marlo", 
            "id": "sg:person.0642603307.29", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0642603307.29"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2008.01965.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000038317"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2105-9-540", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000709253", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-9-540"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2105-9-540", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000709253", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-9-540"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.201600121", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000927556"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2567.2006.02360.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001243307"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00439-009-0670-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001881886", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00439-009-0670-5"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00439-009-0670-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001881886", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00439-009-0670-5"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00439-009-0670-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001881886", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00439-009-0670-5"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00439-009-0670-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001881886", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00439-009-0670-5"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2008.02089.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001889524"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ejhg.2013.84", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001934739", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2013.84"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005271", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002814801"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1242/dev.065276", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004290561"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.140201897", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005425637"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.185926.114", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005427498"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2016.10.014", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005730287"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.7150/jgen.8123", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007127416"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2011.11.012", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007291183"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiu147", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008019057"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.201100047", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008624623"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1196/annals.1386.043", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010553662"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.094052.109", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010760027"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005374", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011023125"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00251-003-0602-9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012851951", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00251-003-0602-9"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00694.2005", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013162919"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/35047580", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014369054", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/35047580"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/35047580", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014369054", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/35047580"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000037", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015195138"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiu159", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015644689"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0161-6420(92)31902-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015823630"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1182/blood.v97.5.1274", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018124749"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1520113113", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018544496"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1520113113", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018544496"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2015.03.016", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018646710"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tube.2016.03.008", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018665143"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2141.1997.2573078.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019742264"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2141.1997.2573078.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019742264"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1172/jci67604", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020133220"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2013.06.020", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020322049"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature09872", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020604000", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09872"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2016.03.023", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020605725"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/315406", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021009268"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nri.2016.90", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021677030", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nri.2016.90"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/iji.12170", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022341153"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2009.03.005", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023939951"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2133.2002.04688.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027625618"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00268-010-0455-y", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028186268", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00268-010-0455-y"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00268-010-0455-y", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028186268", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00268-010-0455-y"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.07.013", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028475539"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-112414-055311", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028636548"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055694", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028732950"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1136/jmg.2006.043406", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028908190"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s12016-009-8167-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028983664", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s12016-009-8167-5"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s12016-009-8167-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028983664", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s12016-009-8167-5"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1567-1364.2005.00017.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029301820"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2015.07.004", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029736174"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002377", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030217532"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s004390000382", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030346735", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s004390000382"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s004390000382", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030346735", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s004390000382"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0914618107", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030484465"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2014-05-577270", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030487753"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/335093a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030964690", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/335093a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/sj.cdd.4401850", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031359866", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.cdd.4401850"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/sj.cdd.4401850", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031359866", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.cdd.4401850"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/emmm.200900053", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032667485"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20060085", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033051667"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/jhered/esv059", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033629196"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.111849.110", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033645248"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010757", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033776767"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nri2815", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035290950", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nri2815"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/qai.0b013e31811ed32c", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036455693"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/qai.0b013e31811ed32c", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036455693"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2006.09.011", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037200543"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s13742-015-0047-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037894462", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/s13742-015-0047-8"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nri2394", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038406254", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nri2394"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00005-011-0124-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038517062", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00005-011-0124-3"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00005-011-0124-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038517062", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00005-011-0124-3"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002152", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038613575"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1179/000349809x12459740922291", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038886397"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0168-9525(03)00177-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039669556"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0168-9525(03)00177-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039669556"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00439-011-1011-z", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040217772", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00439-011-1011-z"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00439-011-1011-z", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040217772", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00439-011-1011-z"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ng.2530", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040362304", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.2530"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/tru167", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040561195"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/gb-2010-11-6-213", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041296325", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/gb-2010-11-6-213"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000529", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043446290"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.09-0903", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043910796"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00126334-200007010-00004", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044371609"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00126334-200007010-00004", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044371609"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1172/jci31097", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045496985"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000199", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045591414"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1399-0004.2000.580504.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045953299"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ng1197-353", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045991442", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ng1197-353"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s000180050094", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046145302", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s000180050094"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/newbio232229a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047477469", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/newbio232229a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/newbio232229a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047477469", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/newbio232229a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/newbio232229a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047477469", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/newbio232229a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nm.2004", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047708695", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nm.2004"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nm.2004", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047708695", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nm.2004"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06273.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047802172"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06273.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047802172"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/190372a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048297848", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/190372a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yfrne.2008.11.001", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048602384"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0909559107", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048731176"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/497695", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049363191"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3083.2006.01887.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049380834"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000218", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050004421"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ng.3726", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050932941", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.3726"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/349038a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053275082", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/349038a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/s0950268805005042", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053919220"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/327725a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056438795", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/327725a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2008-1063857", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057555333"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1089/088922203762688586", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059200015"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.286.5441.964", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062567135"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/545972", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063203809"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.17795/gct-18316", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1068458887"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074597061", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076349918", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076877338", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.2807/esm.09.12.00497-en", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077000015"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.2807/esm.09.12.00494-en", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077000018"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077016915", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077016915", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077444113", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00029330-200706010-00007", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077444113"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082386401", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082916679", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083251173", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1084499990", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0170403", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1084813165"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1590/s1678-9946201759013", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1084880497"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1101/076950", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1085113380"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1101/076950", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1085113380"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1101/076950", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1085113380"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/17476348.2017.1354700", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1090693378"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nrd.2017.162", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091891119", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nrd.2017.162"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2016.0358", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091934462"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tig.2017.09.005", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092130976"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1007050", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092132391"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.ss6622a1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092619328"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2017.12.008", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1099735670"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2017.12.008", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1099735670"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddy039", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1100728230"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.230433.117", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1101062370"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddy148", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1103692980"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddy148", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1103692980"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2019-12", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2019-12-01", 
        "description": "The X chromosome and X-linked variants have largely been ignored in genome-wide and candidate association studies of infectious diseases due to the complexity of statistical analysis of the X chromosome. This exclusion is significant, since the X chromosome contains a high density of immune-related genes and regulatory elements that are extensively involved in both the innate and adaptive immune responses. Many diseases present with a clear sex bias, and apart from the influence of sex hormones and socioeconomic and behavioural factors, the X chromosome, X-linked genes and X chromosome inactivation mechanisms contribute to this difference. Females are functional mosaics for X-linked genes due to X chromosome inactivation and this, combined with other X chromosome inactivation mechanisms such as genes that escape silencing and skewed inactivation, could contribute to an immunological advantage for females in many infections. In this review, we discuss the involvement of the X chromosome and X inactivation in immunity and address its role in sexual dimorphism of infectious diseases using tuberculosis susceptibility as an example, in which male sex bias is clear, yet not fully explored.", 
        "genre": "research_article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s40246-018-0185-z", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1033252", 
            "issn": [
              "1473-9542", 
              "1479-7364"
            ], 
            "name": "Human Genomics", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "1", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "13"
          }
        ], 
        "name": "The X chromosome and sex-specific effects in infectious disease susceptibility", 
        "pagination": "2", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "8a385fd5073f244c1ea20e2d2ab93188f902b29ee3608e87cdc3bd664644cacc"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "pubmed_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "30621780"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "101202210"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1186/s40246-018-0185-z"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1111263827"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/s40246-018-0185-z", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1111263827"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T13:17", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000368_0000000368/records_78934_00000001.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://link.springer.com/10.1186%2Fs40246-018-0185-z"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s40246-018-0185-z'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s40246-018-0185-z'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s40246-018-0185-z'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s40246-018-0185-z'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    493 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      151 URIs      21 LITERALS      9 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1186/s40246-018-0185-z schema:about anzsrc-for:06
    2 anzsrc-for:0604
    3 schema:author Nb461ea08ba194df395e328c73dac78cd
    4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/s00005-011-0124-3
    5 sg:pub.10.1007/s000180050094
    6 sg:pub.10.1007/s00251-003-0602-9
    7 sg:pub.10.1007/s00268-010-0455-y
    8 sg:pub.10.1007/s00439-009-0670-5
    9 sg:pub.10.1007/s00439-011-1011-z
    10 sg:pub.10.1007/s004390000382
    11 sg:pub.10.1007/s12016-009-8167-5
    12 sg:pub.10.1038/190372a0
    13 sg:pub.10.1038/327725a0
    14 sg:pub.10.1038/335093a0
    15 sg:pub.10.1038/349038a0
    16 sg:pub.10.1038/35047580
    17 sg:pub.10.1038/ejhg.2013.84
    18 sg:pub.10.1038/nature09872
    19 sg:pub.10.1038/newbio232229a0
    20 sg:pub.10.1038/ng.2530
    21 sg:pub.10.1038/ng.3726
    22 sg:pub.10.1038/ng1197-353
    23 sg:pub.10.1038/nm.2004
    24 sg:pub.10.1038/nrd.2017.162
    25 sg:pub.10.1038/nri.2016.90
    26 sg:pub.10.1038/nri2394
    27 sg:pub.10.1038/nri2815
    28 sg:pub.10.1038/sj.cdd.4401850
    29 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2105-9-540
    30 sg:pub.10.1186/gb-2010-11-6-213
    31 sg:pub.10.1186/s13742-015-0047-8
    32 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074597061
    33 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076349918
    34 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076877338
    35 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077016915
    36 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077444113
    37 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082386401
    38 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082916679
    39 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083251173
    40 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1084499990
    41 https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.201100047
    42 https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.201600121
    43 https://doi.org/10.1002/emmm.200900053
    44 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.07.013
    45 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2013.06.020
    46 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2016.03.023
    47 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2009.03.005
    48 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2011.11.012
    49 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2006.09.011
    50 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2015.07.004
    51 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2017.12.008
    52 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2015.03.016
    53 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2016.10.014
    54 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tig.2017.09.005
    55 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tube.2016.03.008
    56 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yfrne.2008.11.001
    57 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0161-6420(92)31902-5
    58 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0168-9525(03)00177-x
    59 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0950268805005042
    60 https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1399-0004.2000.580504.x
    61 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2133.2002.04688.x
    62 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2141.1997.2573078.x
    63 https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2008-1063857
    64 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0909559107
    65 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0914618107
    66 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.140201897
    67 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1520113113
    68 https://doi.org/10.1080/17476348.2017.1354700
    69 https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20060085
    70 https://doi.org/10.1086/315406
    71 https://doi.org/10.1086/497695
    72 https://doi.org/10.1089/088922203762688586
    73 https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddy039
    74 https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddy148
    75 https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiu147
    76 https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiu159
    77 https://doi.org/10.1093/jhered/esv059
    78 https://doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/tru167
    79 https://doi.org/10.1097/00029330-200706010-00007
    80 https://doi.org/10.1097/00126334-200007010-00004
    81 https://doi.org/10.1097/qai.0b013e31811ed32c
    82 https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2016.0358
    83 https://doi.org/10.1101/076950
    84 https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.094052.109
    85 https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.111849.110
    86 https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.185926.114
    87 https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.230433.117
    88 https://doi.org/10.1111/iji.12170
    89 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2567.2006.02360.x
    90 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3083.2006.01887.x
    91 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2008.01965.x
    92 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2008.02089.x
    93 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1567-1364.2005.00017.x
    94 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06273.x
    95 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.286.5441.964
    96 https://doi.org/10.1136/jmg.2006.043406
    97 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-112414-055311
    98 https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00694.2005
    99 https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/545972
    100 https://doi.org/10.1172/jci31097
    101 https://doi.org/10.1172/jci67604
    102 https://doi.org/10.1179/000349809x12459740922291
    103 https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2014-05-577270
    104 https://doi.org/10.1182/blood.v97.5.1274
    105 https://doi.org/10.1196/annals.1386.043
    106 https://doi.org/10.1242/dev.065276
    107 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000037
    108 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000218
    109 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000529
    110 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1007050
    111 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000199
    112 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002152
    113 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002377
    114 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010757
    115 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055694
    116 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0170403
    117 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005271
    118 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005374
    119 https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.09-0903
    120 https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.ss6622a1
    121 https://doi.org/10.1590/s1678-9946201759013
    122 https://doi.org/10.17795/gct-18316
    123 https://doi.org/10.2807/esm.09.12.00494-en
    124 https://doi.org/10.2807/esm.09.12.00497-en
    125 https://doi.org/10.7150/jgen.8123
    126 schema:datePublished 2019-12
    127 schema:datePublishedReg 2019-12-01
    128 schema:description The X chromosome and X-linked variants have largely been ignored in genome-wide and candidate association studies of infectious diseases due to the complexity of statistical analysis of the X chromosome. This exclusion is significant, since the X chromosome contains a high density of immune-related genes and regulatory elements that are extensively involved in both the innate and adaptive immune responses. Many diseases present with a clear sex bias, and apart from the influence of sex hormones and socioeconomic and behavioural factors, the X chromosome, X-linked genes and X chromosome inactivation mechanisms contribute to this difference. Females are functional mosaics for X-linked genes due to X chromosome inactivation and this, combined with other X chromosome inactivation mechanisms such as genes that escape silencing and skewed inactivation, could contribute to an immunological advantage for females in many infections. In this review, we discuss the involvement of the X chromosome and X inactivation in immunity and address its role in sexual dimorphism of infectious diseases using tuberculosis susceptibility as an example, in which male sex bias is clear, yet not fully explored.
    129 schema:genre research_article
    130 schema:inLanguage en
    131 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
    132 schema:isPartOf N29c1fd5deef348338a15f4dd42fc234a
    133 N418127b6c3cf41b0be49c0b6eef78f57
    134 sg:journal.1033252
    135 schema:name The X chromosome and sex-specific effects in infectious disease susceptibility
    136 schema:pagination 2
    137 schema:productId N631f81f989e0468ab10133ab81f6eee2
    138 Nbe8dd64eeb8a4ba38172b8fe8721bc2b
    139 Nc94c5cc716364669a6ca51c6ace83256
    140 Ndd4ff9dd52d44f748fa71dfb0fa7e457
    141 Ne0bbe31b9e57410084879e41ed9cd556
    142 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1111263827
    143 https://doi.org/10.1186/s40246-018-0185-z
    144 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T13:17
    145 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    146 schema:sdPublisher N5ccf40fe4c5941239e0d42ad8ee1c70e
    147 schema:url https://link.springer.com/10.1186%2Fs40246-018-0185-z
    148 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    149 sgo:sdDataset articles
    150 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    151 N29c1fd5deef348338a15f4dd42fc234a schema:volumeNumber 13
    152 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    153 N418127b6c3cf41b0be49c0b6eef78f57 schema:issueNumber 1
    154 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    155 N4489ef4bb93a4390b8153cc8bf1a99c3 rdf:first sg:person.07675140577.42
    156 rdf:rest Nd01b6b419c094b9b940beea6e829134c
    157 N5ccf40fe4c5941239e0d42ad8ee1c70e schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    158 rdf:type schema:Organization
    159 N631f81f989e0468ab10133ab81f6eee2 schema:name nlm_unique_id
    160 schema:value 101202210
    161 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    162 N9abd0dd49a4a4661a4e8d836dd1175e2 rdf:first sg:person.01250760004.41
    163 rdf:rest Nef28501d356546c59f49c7198ee877dc
    164 Nb461ea08ba194df395e328c73dac78cd rdf:first sg:person.01150121565.61
    165 rdf:rest Nc0a169ae91a24a0c82123cacfc1bd303
    166 Nbe8dd64eeb8a4ba38172b8fe8721bc2b schema:name dimensions_id
    167 schema:value pub.1111263827
    168 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    169 Nc0a169ae91a24a0c82123cacfc1bd303 rdf:first sg:person.0622243554.85
    170 rdf:rest N4489ef4bb93a4390b8153cc8bf1a99c3
    171 Nc94c5cc716364669a6ca51c6ace83256 schema:name doi
    172 schema:value 10.1186/s40246-018-0185-z
    173 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    174 Nd01b6b419c094b9b940beea6e829134c rdf:first sg:person.01342424061.37
    175 rdf:rest N9abd0dd49a4a4661a4e8d836dd1175e2
    176 Ndd4ff9dd52d44f748fa71dfb0fa7e457 schema:name pubmed_id
    177 schema:value 30621780
    178 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    179 Ne0bbe31b9e57410084879e41ed9cd556 schema:name readcube_id
    180 schema:value 8a385fd5073f244c1ea20e2d2ab93188f902b29ee3608e87cdc3bd664644cacc
    181 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    182 Nef28501d356546c59f49c7198ee877dc rdf:first sg:person.0642603307.29
    183 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    184 anzsrc-for:06 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    185 schema:name Biological Sciences
    186 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    187 anzsrc-for:0604 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    188 schema:name Genetics
    189 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    190 sg:journal.1033252 schema:issn 1473-9542
    191 1479-7364
    192 schema:name Human Genomics
    193 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    194 sg:person.01150121565.61 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11956.3a
    195 schema:familyName Schurz
    196 schema:givenName Haiko
    197 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01150121565.61
    198 rdf:type schema:Person
    199 sg:person.01250760004.41 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11956.3a
    200 schema:familyName Kinnear
    201 schema:givenName Craig J.
    202 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01250760004.41
    203 rdf:type schema:Person
    204 sg:person.01342424061.37 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11956.3a
    205 schema:familyName Hoal
    206 schema:givenName Eileen G.
    207 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01342424061.37
    208 rdf:type schema:Person
    209 sg:person.0622243554.85 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.240871.8
    210 schema:familyName Salie
    211 schema:givenName Muneeb
    212 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0622243554.85
    213 rdf:type schema:Person
    214 sg:person.0642603307.29 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11956.3a
    215 schema:familyName Möller
    216 schema:givenName Marlo
    217 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0642603307.29
    218 rdf:type schema:Person
    219 sg:person.07675140577.42 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11956.3a
    220 schema:familyName Tromp
    221 schema:givenName Gerard
    222 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07675140577.42
    223 rdf:type schema:Person
    224 sg:pub.10.1007/s00005-011-0124-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038517062
    225 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00005-011-0124-3
    226 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    227 sg:pub.10.1007/s000180050094 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046145302
    228 https://doi.org/10.1007/s000180050094
    229 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    230 sg:pub.10.1007/s00251-003-0602-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012851951
    231 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00251-003-0602-9
    232 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    233 sg:pub.10.1007/s00268-010-0455-y schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028186268
    234 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00268-010-0455-y
    235 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    236 sg:pub.10.1007/s00439-009-0670-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001881886
    237 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00439-009-0670-5
    238 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    239 sg:pub.10.1007/s00439-011-1011-z schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040217772
    240 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00439-011-1011-z
    241 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    242 sg:pub.10.1007/s004390000382 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030346735
    243 https://doi.org/10.1007/s004390000382
    244 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    245 sg:pub.10.1007/s12016-009-8167-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028983664
    246 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12016-009-8167-5
    247 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    248 sg:pub.10.1038/190372a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048297848
    249 https://doi.org/10.1038/190372a0
    250 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    251 sg:pub.10.1038/327725a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056438795
    252 https://doi.org/10.1038/327725a0
    253 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    254 sg:pub.10.1038/335093a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030964690
    255 https://doi.org/10.1038/335093a0
    256 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    257 sg:pub.10.1038/349038a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053275082
    258 https://doi.org/10.1038/349038a0
    259 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    260 sg:pub.10.1038/35047580 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014369054
    261 https://doi.org/10.1038/35047580
    262 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    263 sg:pub.10.1038/ejhg.2013.84 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001934739
    264 https://doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2013.84
    265 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    266 sg:pub.10.1038/nature09872 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020604000
    267 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09872
    268 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    269 sg:pub.10.1038/newbio232229a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047477469
    270 https://doi.org/10.1038/newbio232229a0
    271 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    272 sg:pub.10.1038/ng.2530 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040362304
    273 https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.2530
    274 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    275 sg:pub.10.1038/ng.3726 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050932941
    276 https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.3726
    277 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    278 sg:pub.10.1038/ng1197-353 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045991442
    279 https://doi.org/10.1038/ng1197-353
    280 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    281 sg:pub.10.1038/nm.2004 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047708695
    282 https://doi.org/10.1038/nm.2004
    283 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    284 sg:pub.10.1038/nrd.2017.162 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091891119
    285 https://doi.org/10.1038/nrd.2017.162
    286 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    287 sg:pub.10.1038/nri.2016.90 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021677030
    288 https://doi.org/10.1038/nri.2016.90
    289 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    290 sg:pub.10.1038/nri2394 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038406254
    291 https://doi.org/10.1038/nri2394
    292 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    293 sg:pub.10.1038/nri2815 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035290950
    294 https://doi.org/10.1038/nri2815
    295 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    296 sg:pub.10.1038/sj.cdd.4401850 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031359866
    297 https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.cdd.4401850
    298 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    299 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2105-9-540 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000709253
    300 https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-9-540
    301 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    302 sg:pub.10.1186/gb-2010-11-6-213 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041296325
    303 https://doi.org/10.1186/gb-2010-11-6-213
    304 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    305 sg:pub.10.1186/s13742-015-0047-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037894462
    306 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13742-015-0047-8
    307 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    308 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074597061 schema:CreativeWork
    309 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076349918 schema:CreativeWork
    310 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076877338 schema:CreativeWork
    311 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077016915 schema:CreativeWork
    312 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077444113 schema:CreativeWork
    313 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082386401 schema:CreativeWork
    314 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082916679 schema:CreativeWork
    315 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083251173 schema:CreativeWork
    316 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1084499990 schema:CreativeWork
    317 https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.201100047 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008624623
    318 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    319 https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.201600121 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000927556
    320 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    321 https://doi.org/10.1002/emmm.200900053 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032667485
    322 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    323 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.07.013 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028475539
    324 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    325 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2013.06.020 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020322049
    326 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    327 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2016.03.023 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020605725
    328 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    329 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2009.03.005 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023939951
    330 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    331 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2011.11.012 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007291183
    332 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    333 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2006.09.011 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037200543
    334 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    335 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2015.07.004 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029736174
    336 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    337 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2017.12.008 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1099735670
    338 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    339 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2015.03.016 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018646710
    340 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    341 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2016.10.014 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005730287
    342 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    343 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tig.2017.09.005 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092130976
    344 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    345 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tube.2016.03.008 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018665143
    346 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    347 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yfrne.2008.11.001 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048602384
    348 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    349 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0161-6420(92)31902-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015823630
    350 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    351 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0168-9525(03)00177-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039669556
    352 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    353 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0950268805005042 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053919220
    354 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    355 https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1399-0004.2000.580504.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045953299
    356 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    357 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2133.2002.04688.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027625618
    358 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    359 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2141.1997.2573078.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019742264
    360 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    361 https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2008-1063857 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057555333
    362 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    363 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0909559107 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048731176
    364 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    365 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0914618107 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030484465
    366 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    367 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.140201897 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005425637
    368 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    369 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1520113113 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018544496
    370 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    371 https://doi.org/10.1080/17476348.2017.1354700 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1090693378
    372 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    373 https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20060085 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033051667
    374 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    375 https://doi.org/10.1086/315406 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021009268
    376 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    377 https://doi.org/10.1086/497695 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049363191
    378 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    379 https://doi.org/10.1089/088922203762688586 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059200015
    380 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    381 https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddy039 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1100728230
    382 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    383 https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddy148 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1103692980
    384 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    385 https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiu147 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008019057
    386 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    387 https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiu159 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015644689
    388 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    389 https://doi.org/10.1093/jhered/esv059 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033629196
    390 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    391 https://doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/tru167 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040561195
    392 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    393 https://doi.org/10.1097/00029330-200706010-00007 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077444113
    394 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    395 https://doi.org/10.1097/00126334-200007010-00004 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044371609
    396 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    397 https://doi.org/10.1097/qai.0b013e31811ed32c schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036455693
    398 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    399 https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2016.0358 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091934462
    400 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    401 https://doi.org/10.1101/076950 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1085113380
    402 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    403 https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.094052.109 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010760027
    404 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    405 https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.111849.110 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033645248
    406 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    407 https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.185926.114 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005427498
    408 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    409 https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.230433.117 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1101062370
    410 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    411 https://doi.org/10.1111/iji.12170 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022341153
    412 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    413 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2567.2006.02360.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001243307
    414 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    415 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3083.2006.01887.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049380834
    416 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    417 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2008.01965.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000038317
    418 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    419 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2008.02089.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001889524
    420 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    421 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1567-1364.2005.00017.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029301820
    422 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    423 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06273.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047802172
    424 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    425 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.286.5441.964 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062567135
    426 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    427 https://doi.org/10.1136/jmg.2006.043406 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028908190
    428 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    429 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-112414-055311 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028636548
    430 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    431 https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00694.2005 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013162919
    432 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    433 https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/545972 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063203809
    434 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    435 https://doi.org/10.1172/jci31097 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045496985
    436 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    437 https://doi.org/10.1172/jci67604 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020133220
    438 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    439 https://doi.org/10.1179/000349809x12459740922291 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038886397
    440 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    441 https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2014-05-577270 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030487753
    442 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    443 https://doi.org/10.1182/blood.v97.5.1274 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018124749
    444 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    445 https://doi.org/10.1196/annals.1386.043 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010553662
    446 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    447 https://doi.org/10.1242/dev.065276 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004290561
    448 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    449 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000037 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015195138
    450 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    451 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000218 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050004421
    452 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    453 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000529 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043446290
    454 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    455 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1007050 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092132391
    456 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    457 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000199 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045591414
    458 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    459 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002152 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038613575
    460 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    461 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002377 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030217532
    462 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    463 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010757 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033776767
    464 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    465 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055694 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028732950
    466 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    467 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0170403 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1084813165
    468 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    469 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005271 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002814801
    470 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    471 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005374 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011023125
    472 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    473 https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.09-0903 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043910796
    474 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    475 https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.ss6622a1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092619328
    476 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    477 https://doi.org/10.1590/s1678-9946201759013 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1084880497
    478 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    479 https://doi.org/10.17795/gct-18316 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1068458887
    480 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    481 https://doi.org/10.2807/esm.09.12.00494-en schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077000018
    482 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    483 https://doi.org/10.2807/esm.09.12.00497-en schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077000015
    484 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    485 https://doi.org/10.7150/jgen.8123 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007127416
    486 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    487 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11956.3a schema:alternateName Stellenbosch University
    488 schema:name DST-NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, South African Medical Research Council Centre for Tuberculosis Research, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    489 South African Tuberculosis Bioinformatics Initiative (SATBBI), Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    490 rdf:type schema:Organization
    491 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.240871.8 schema:alternateName St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
    492 schema:name Department of Genetics, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, 38105, Memphis, TN, USA
    493 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...