Microbiota Transfer Therapy alters gut ecosystem and improves gastrointestinal and autism symptoms: an open-label study View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2017-01-23

AUTHORS

Dae-Wook Kang, James B. Adams, Ann C. Gregory, Thomas Borody, Lauren Chittick, Alessio Fasano, Alexander Khoruts, Elizabeth Geis, Juan Maldonado, Sharon McDonough-Means, Elena L. Pollard, Simon Roux, Michael J. Sadowsky, Karen Schwarzberg Lipson, Matthew B. Sullivan, J. Gregory Caporaso, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neurobiological disorders that impair social interactions and communication and lead to restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. The causes of these disorders remain poorly understood, but gut microbiota, the 1013 bacteria in the human intestines, have been implicated because children with ASD often suffer gastrointestinal (GI) problems that correlate with ASD severity. Several previous studies have reported abnormal gut bacteria in children with ASD. The gut microbiome-ASD connection has been tested in a mouse model of ASD, where the microbiome was mechanistically linked to abnormal metabolites and behavior. Similarly, a study of children with ASD found that oral non-absorbable antibiotic treatment improved GI and ASD symptoms, albeit temporarily. Here, a small open-label clinical trial evaluated the impact of Microbiota Transfer Therapy (MTT) on gut microbiota composition and GI and ASD symptoms of 18 ASD-diagnosed children. RESULTS: MTT involved a 2-week antibiotic treatment, a bowel cleanse, and then an extended fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) using a high initial dose followed by daily and lower maintenance doses for 7-8 weeks. The Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale revealed an approximately 80% reduction of GI symptoms at the end of treatment, including significant improvements in symptoms of constipation, diarrhea, indigestion, and abdominal pain. Improvements persisted 8 weeks after treatment. Similarly, clinical assessments showed that behavioral ASD symptoms improved significantly and remained improved 8 weeks after treatment ended. Bacterial and phagedeep sequencing analyses revealed successful partial engraftment of donor microbiota and beneficial changes in the gut environment. Specifically, overall bacterial diversity and the abundance of Bifidobacterium, Prevotella, and Desulfovibrio among other taxa increased following MTT, and these changes persisted after treatment stopped (followed for 8 weeks). CONCLUSIONS: This exploratory, extended-duration treatment protocol thus appears to be a promising approach to alter the gut microbiome and virome and improve GI and behavioral symptoms of ASD. Improvements in GI symptoms, ASD symptoms, and the microbiome all persisted for at least 8 weeks after treatment ended, suggesting a long-term impact. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered on the ClinicalTrials.gov, with the registration number NCT02504554. More... »

PAGES

10

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2012-03-08. Ultra-high-throughput microbial community analysis on the Illumina HiSeq and MiSeq platforms in THE ISME JOURNAL: MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF MICROBIAL ECOLOGY
  • 1997-01. Reliability and validity of the gastrointestinal symptom rating scale in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease in QUALITY OF LIFE RESEARCH
  • 2010-02-11. Viral and microbial community dynamics in four aquatic environments in THE ISME JOURNAL: MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF MICROBIAL ECOLOGY
  • 2012-06-13. Structure, Function and Diversity of the Healthy Human Microbiome in NATURE
  • 2014-07-29. The Effect of Fiber Supplementation on Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis in THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY
  • 2015-06-16. Therapeutic Advances in Autism and Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders in NEUROTHERAPEUTICS
  • 2013-11-06. Gastrointestinal Problems in Children with Autism, Developmental Delays or Typical Development in JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
  • 2014-07-13. Viral tagging reveals discrete populations in Synechococcus viral genome sequence space in NATURE
  • 2015-02-02. Rising to the challenge: accelerated pace of discovery transforms marine virology in NATURE REVIEWS MICROBIOLOGY
  • 2011-03-16. Gastrointestinal flora and gastrointestinal status in children with autism -- comparisons to typical children and correlation with autism severity in BMC GASTROENTEROLOGY
  • 2012-03-27. Long-Term Follow-Up of Colonoscopic Fecal Microbiota Transplant for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection in THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY
  • 2011-02-28. Shifting the balance: antibiotic effects on host–microbiota mutualism in NATURE REVIEWS MICROBIOLOGY
  • 2012-03-04. Fast gapped-read alignment with Bowtie 2 in NATURE METHODS
  • 2010-04-11. QIIME allows analysis of high-throughput community sequencing data in NATURE METHODS
  • 2013-01-01. Quality-filtering vastly improves diversity estimates from Illumina amplicon sequencing in NATURE METHODS
  • 2010-03. A human gut microbial gene catalogue established by metagenomic sequencing in NATURE
  • 2013-11-04. Increased abundance of Sutterella spp. and Ruminococcus torques in feces of children with autism spectrum disorder in MOLECULAR AUTISM
  • 2010-07. Viruses in the fecal microbiota of monozygotic twins and their mothers in NATURE
  • 2011-12-12. Effect of a vitamin/mineral supplement on children and adults with autism in BMC PEDIATRICS
  • 2012-01-31. Standardized Frozen Preparation for Transplantation of Fecal Microbiota for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection in THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY
  • 1994-10. Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders in JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
  • 2011-05-10. Convective burn from use of hairdryer for heel warming prior to the heel prick test - a case report in BMC PEDIATRICS
  • 2015-10-16. Divergent responses of viral and bacterial communities in the gut microbiome to dietary disturbances in mice in THE ISME JOURNAL: MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF MICROBIAL ECOLOGY
  • Journal

    TITLE

    Microbiome

    ISSUE

    1

    VOLUME

    5

    Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s40168-016-0225-7

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-016-0225-7

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074212961

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28122648


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/11", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Medical and Health Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1103", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Clinical Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Abdominal Pain", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Adolescent", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Anti-Bacterial Agents", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Autism Spectrum Disorder", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Bacteriophages", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Bifidobacterium", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Child", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Constipation", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "DNA, Viral", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Desulfovibrio", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Diarrhea", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Fecal Microbiota Transplantation", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Female", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Gastrointestinal Diseases", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Gastrointestinal Microbiome", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Gastrointestinal Tract", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Humans", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Infant", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Male", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Prevotella", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Probiotics", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Biodesign Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.215654.1", 
              "name": [
                "Biodesign Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Kang", 
            "givenName": "Dae-Wook", 
            "id": "sg:person.01062767011.03", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01062767011.03"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.215654.1", 
              "name": [
                "School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Adams", 
            "givenName": "James B.", 
            "id": "sg:person.0616372277.04", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0616372277.04"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Microbiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.261331.4", 
              "name": [
                "Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA", 
                "Department of Microbiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Gregory", 
            "givenName": "Ann C.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01300646720.13", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01300646720.13"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Centre for Digestive Diseases, Five Dock, NSW 2046 Australia", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.492342.a", 
              "name": [
                "Centre for Digestive Diseases, Five Dock, NSW 2046 Australia"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Borody", 
            "givenName": "Thomas", 
            "id": "sg:person.0752727405.01", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0752727405.01"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Microbiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.261331.4", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85287 USA", 
                "Department of Microbiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Chittick", 
            "givenName": "Lauren", 
            "id": "sg:person.01170262543.95", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01170262543.95"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Boston, MA 02114 USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.32224.35", 
              "name": [
                "Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Boston, MA 02114 USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Fasano", 
            "givenName": "Alessio", 
            "id": "sg:person.01007715271.18", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01007715271.18"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Center for Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55414 USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17635.36", 
              "name": [
                "Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA", 
                "BioTechnology Institute, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108 USA", 
                "Center for Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55414 USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Khoruts", 
            "givenName": "Alexander", 
            "id": "sg:person.010341451647.29", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010341451647.29"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.215654.1", 
              "name": [
                "School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Geis", 
            "givenName": "Elizabeth", 
            "id": "sg:person.01321071354.25", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01321071354.25"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Biodesign Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.215654.1", 
              "name": [
                "Biodesign Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Maldonado", 
            "givenName": "Juan", 
            "id": "sg:person.01310060733.68", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01310060733.68"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Integrative Developmental Pediatrics, Tucson, AZ 85701 USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/None", 
              "name": [
                "Integrative Developmental Pediatrics, Tucson, AZ 85701 USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "McDonough-Means", 
            "givenName": "Sharon", 
            "id": "sg:person.01116700234.07", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01116700234.07"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.215654.1", 
              "name": [
                "School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Pollard", 
            "givenName": "Elena L.", 
            "id": "sg:person.016653646235.51", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016653646235.51"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Microbiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.261331.4", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85287 USA", 
                "Department of Microbiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Roux", 
            "givenName": "Simon", 
            "id": "sg:person.01326704035.18", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01326704035.18"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Soil, Water and Climate, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108 USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17635.36", 
              "name": [
                "BioTechnology Institute, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108 USA", 
                "Department of Soil, Water and Climate, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108 USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Sadowsky", 
            "givenName": "Michael J.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01073261101.46", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01073261101.46"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Pathogen and Microbiome Institute, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.261120.6", 
              "name": [
                "Pathogen and Microbiome Institute, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Lipson", 
            "givenName": "Karen Schwarzberg", 
            "id": "sg:person.013232777303.31", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013232777303.31"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Civil, Environmental and Geodetic Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43120 USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.261331.4", 
              "name": [
                "Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA", 
                "Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85287 USA", 
                "Department of Microbiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 USA", 
                "Department of Civil, Environmental and Geodetic Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43120 USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Sullivan", 
            "givenName": "Matthew B.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01040164115.34", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01040164115.34"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.261120.6", 
              "name": [
                "Pathogen and Microbiome Institute, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 USA", 
                "Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Caporaso", 
            "givenName": "J. Gregory", 
            "id": "sg:person.0624224157.70", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0624224157.70"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.215654.1", 
              "name": [
                "Biodesign Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA", 
                "School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Krajmalnik-Brown", 
            "givenName": "Rosa", 
            "id": "sg:person.01341723702.36", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01341723702.36"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ajg.2011.482", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017120105", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ajg.2011.482"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/a:1008841022998", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049233843", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1008841022998"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ismej.2012.8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038992953", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2012.8"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ismej.2015.183", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049382822", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2015.183"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature11234", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007740093", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11234"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.2276", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039195944", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.2276"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/2040-2392-4-42", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007220511", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/2040-2392-4-42"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2431-11-30", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036108338", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2431-11-30"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature09199", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031776599", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09199"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.f.303", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009032055", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.f.303"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nrmicro3404", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052276978", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro3404"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2431-11-111", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050021551", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2431-11-111"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02172145", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017747169", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02172145"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1471-230x-11-22", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034060928", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-230x-11-22"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nrmicro2536", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032003994", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro2536"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ajg.2014.195", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009328873", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ajg.2014.195"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10803-013-1973-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045830576", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-013-1973-x"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature08821", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050498034", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08821"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ismej.2010.1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003110594", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2010.1"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature13459", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030016698", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13459"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ajg.2012.60", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003126756", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ajg.2012.60"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.1923", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006541515", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.1923"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s13311-015-0364-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005741708", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s13311-015-0364-8"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2017-01-23", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2017-01-23", 
        "description": "BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neurobiological disorders that impair social interactions and communication and lead to restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. The causes of these disorders remain poorly understood, but gut microbiota, the 1013 bacteria in the human intestines, have been implicated because children with ASD often suffer gastrointestinal (GI) problems that correlate with ASD severity. Several previous studies have reported abnormal gut bacteria in children with ASD. The gut microbiome-ASD connection has been tested in a mouse model of ASD, where the microbiome was mechanistically linked to abnormal metabolites and behavior. Similarly, a study of children with ASD found that oral non-absorbable antibiotic treatment improved GI and ASD symptoms, albeit temporarily. Here, a small open-label clinical trial evaluated the impact of Microbiota Transfer Therapy (MTT) on gut microbiota composition and GI and ASD symptoms of 18 ASD-diagnosed children.\nRESULTS: MTT involved a 2-week antibiotic treatment, a bowel cleanse, and then an extended fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) using a high initial dose followed by daily and lower maintenance doses for 7-8\u00a0weeks. The Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale revealed an approximately 80% reduction of GI symptoms at the end of treatment, including significant improvements in symptoms of constipation, diarrhea, indigestion, and abdominal pain. Improvements persisted 8\u00a0weeks after treatment. Similarly, clinical assessments showed that behavioral ASD symptoms improved significantly and remained improved 8\u00a0weeks after treatment ended. Bacterial and phagedeep sequencing analyses revealed successful partial engraftment of donor microbiota and beneficial changes in the gut environment. Specifically, overall bacterial diversity and the abundance of Bifidobacterium, Prevotella, and Desulfovibrio among other taxa increased following MTT, and these changes persisted after treatment stopped (followed for 8\u00a0weeks).\nCONCLUSIONS: This exploratory, extended-duration treatment protocol thus appears to be a promising approach to alter the gut microbiome and virome and improve GI and behavioral symptoms of ASD. Improvements in GI symptoms, ASD symptoms, and the microbiome all persisted for at least 8\u00a0weeks after treatment ended, suggesting a long-term impact.\nTRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered on the ClinicalTrials.gov, with the registration number\u00a0 NCT02504554.", 
        "genre": "article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s40168-016-0225-7", 
        "inLanguage": "en", 
        "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
        "isFundedItemOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.3803945", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }
        ], 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1048878", 
            "issn": [
              "2049-2618"
            ], 
            "name": "Microbiome", 
            "publisher": "Springer Nature", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "1", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "5"
          }
        ], 
        "keywords": [
          "Microbiota Transfer Therapy", 
          "fecal microbiota transplant", 
          "GI symptoms", 
          "antibiotic treatment", 
          "small open-label clinical trials", 
          "open-label clinical trial", 
          "Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale", 
          "low maintenance doses", 
          "symptoms of constipation", 
          "open-label study", 
          "autism spectrum disorder", 
          "end of treatment", 
          "abundance of Bifidobacterium", 
          "gut microbiota composition", 
          "higher initial dose", 
          "Symptom Rating Scale", 
          "ASD symptoms", 
          "partial engraftment", 
          "abdominal pain", 
          "maintenance doses", 
          "donor microbiota", 
          "therapy alters", 
          "initial dose", 
          "microbiota transplant", 
          "clinical trials", 
          "gastrointestinal problems", 
          "clinical assessment", 
          "treatment protocol", 
          "study of children", 
          "mouse model", 
          "gut microbiota", 
          "transfer therapy", 
          "behavioral symptoms", 
          "registration number", 
          "microbiota composition", 
          "symptoms", 
          "abnormal metabolites", 
          "gut microbiome", 
          "Rating Scale", 
          "human intestine", 
          "gut bacteria", 
          "weeks", 
          "beneficial changes", 
          "treatment", 
          "disorders", 
          "complex neurobiological disorder", 
          "gut environment", 
          "stereotyped pattern", 
          "children", 
          "neurobiological disorder", 
          "trials", 
          "long-term impact", 
          "spectrum disorder", 
          "microbiota", 
          "GI", 
          "significant improvement", 
          "microbiome", 
          "sequencing analysis", 
          "autism symptoms", 
          "constipation", 
          "ASD severity", 
          "previous studies", 
          "pain", 
          "diarrhea", 
          "transplant", 
          "engraftment", 
          "therapy", 
          "dose", 
          "doses", 
          "indigestion", 
          "intestine", 
          "severity", 
          "study", 
          "Prevotella", 
          "Bifidobacterium", 
          "cause", 
          "improvement", 
          "metabolites", 
          "promising approach", 
          "changes", 
          "bacteria", 
          "alters", 
          "assessment", 
          "cleanse", 
          "activity", 
          "protocol", 
          "impact", 
          "social interaction", 
          "reduction", 
          "patterns", 
          "number", 
          "lead", 
          "end", 
          "overall bacterial diversity", 
          "bacterial diversity", 
          "scale", 
          "analysis", 
          "behavior", 
          "interaction", 
          "interest", 
          "model", 
          "approach", 
          "communication", 
          "connection", 
          "Desulfovibrio", 
          "problem", 
          "abundance", 
          "composition", 
          "diversity", 
          "environment", 
          "taxa", 
          "ecosystems", 
          "abnormal gut bacteria", 
          "gut microbiome-ASD connection", 
          "microbiome-ASD connection", 
          "oral non-absorbable antibiotic treatment", 
          "non-absorbable antibiotic treatment", 
          "ASD-diagnosed children", 
          "bowel cleanse", 
          "extended fecal microbiota transplant", 
          "behavioral ASD symptoms", 
          "successful partial engraftment", 
          "extended-duration treatment protocol", 
          "NCT02504554", 
          "Microbiota Transfer Therapy alters", 
          "Transfer Therapy alters"
        ], 
        "name": "Microbiota Transfer Therapy alters gut ecosystem and improves gastrointestinal and autism symptoms: an open-label study", 
        "pagination": "10", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1074212961"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1186/s40168-016-0225-7"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "pubmed_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "28122648"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/s40168-016-0225-7", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074212961"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2021-12-01T19:40", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-springernature-scigraph/baseset/20211201/entities/gbq_results/article/article_740.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://doi.org/10.1186/s40168-016-0225-7"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s40168-016-0225-7'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s40168-016-0225-7'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s40168-016-0225-7'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s40168-016-0225-7'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    513 TRIPLES      22 PREDICATES      197 URIs      166 LITERALS      29 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1186/s40168-016-0225-7 schema:about N068d4b6eb63f47aeb5659f59e6a773ff
    2 N0a75e52aeb7d4300ba5d7f680e08fe70
    3 N1431c9641616498894b0e383d4cdd415
    4 N38524c1287eb45349f18d2690809b324
    5 N3ca0056ba5604decbac6cffbb6f101da
    6 N40e5c099b3b148438e7a34edd7b7d64e
    7 N4bd75ae4525a464fa3a60c961118330b
    8 N533a2d91ce33462ebe182343a43d9690
    9 N64a73249f5e84f6596466e1ed110e32d
    10 N7460b25d96094bcd8c430fb30e2b539a
    11 N77e1210a2bfe4d6fbf139fed0ff9e3f6
    12 N83df7ac4f712491ab5fa3fdf41355cfb
    13 Na6e50252a94a4057bffeb0cb6945a31e
    14 Nb8c3bea84c4c4e07b6ff85164f48d3c0
    15 Nc4b7a935a4004546820bb84d7ace8495
    16 Nc8242bc62da24b5b8b9651b9cdb7dccc
    17 Nc94cb9003f5242f7a64ee0e28f4de03b
    18 Nc97cb4fb5b614ceb94ac8bed4dcee880
    19 Ncf923417a2ca4ba990dca8e54ab71cdb
    20 Nd0d06fe558444fd08d283b14352edfbc
    21 Ne36041d9425341a58d88d72a255adf66
    22 Nf257659d68f14dffa2540fb6e197974b
    23 anzsrc-for:11
    24 anzsrc-for:1103
    25 schema:author Nc31814df5c514e3b96e9b66bab02268a
    26 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/bf02172145
    27 sg:pub.10.1007/s10803-013-1973-x
    28 sg:pub.10.1007/s13311-015-0364-8
    29 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1008841022998
    30 sg:pub.10.1038/ajg.2011.482
    31 sg:pub.10.1038/ajg.2012.60
    32 sg:pub.10.1038/ajg.2014.195
    33 sg:pub.10.1038/ismej.2010.1
    34 sg:pub.10.1038/ismej.2012.8
    35 sg:pub.10.1038/ismej.2015.183
    36 sg:pub.10.1038/nature08821
    37 sg:pub.10.1038/nature09199
    38 sg:pub.10.1038/nature11234
    39 sg:pub.10.1038/nature13459
    40 sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.1923
    41 sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.2276
    42 sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.f.303
    43 sg:pub.10.1038/nrmicro2536
    44 sg:pub.10.1038/nrmicro3404
    45 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-230x-11-22
    46 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2431-11-111
    47 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2431-11-30
    48 sg:pub.10.1186/2040-2392-4-42
    49 schema:datePublished 2017-01-23
    50 schema:datePublishedReg 2017-01-23
    51 schema:description BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neurobiological disorders that impair social interactions and communication and lead to restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. The causes of these disorders remain poorly understood, but gut microbiota, the 10<sup>13</sup> bacteria in the human intestines, have been implicated because children with ASD often suffer gastrointestinal (GI) problems that correlate with ASD severity. Several previous studies have reported abnormal gut bacteria in children with ASD. The gut microbiome-ASD connection has been tested in a mouse model of ASD, where the microbiome was mechanistically linked to abnormal metabolites and behavior. Similarly, a study of children with ASD found that oral non-absorbable antibiotic treatment improved GI and ASD symptoms, albeit temporarily. Here, a small open-label clinical trial evaluated the impact of Microbiota Transfer Therapy (MTT) on gut microbiota composition and GI and ASD symptoms of 18 ASD-diagnosed children. RESULTS: MTT involved a 2-week antibiotic treatment, a bowel cleanse, and then an extended fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) using a high initial dose followed by daily and lower maintenance doses for 7-8 weeks. The Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale revealed an approximately 80% reduction of GI symptoms at the end of treatment, including significant improvements in symptoms of constipation, diarrhea, indigestion, and abdominal pain. Improvements persisted 8 weeks after treatment. Similarly, clinical assessments showed that behavioral ASD symptoms improved significantly and remained improved 8 weeks after treatment ended. Bacterial and phagedeep sequencing analyses revealed successful partial engraftment of donor microbiota and beneficial changes in the gut environment. Specifically, overall bacterial diversity and the abundance of Bifidobacterium, Prevotella, and Desulfovibrio among other taxa increased following MTT, and these changes persisted after treatment stopped (followed for 8 weeks). CONCLUSIONS: This exploratory, extended-duration treatment protocol thus appears to be a promising approach to alter the gut microbiome and virome and improve GI and behavioral symptoms of ASD. Improvements in GI symptoms, ASD symptoms, and the microbiome all persisted for at least 8 weeks after treatment ended, suggesting a long-term impact. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered on the ClinicalTrials.gov, with the registration number  NCT02504554.
    52 schema:genre article
    53 schema:inLanguage en
    54 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
    55 schema:isPartOf N17db3de5ff8b49148e3f9fb63795fa70
    56 N2c69bec4553a40589b176c89c9cea587
    57 sg:journal.1048878
    58 schema:keywords ASD severity
    59 ASD symptoms
    60 ASD-diagnosed children
    61 Bifidobacterium
    62 Desulfovibrio
    63 GI
    64 GI symptoms
    65 Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale
    66 Microbiota Transfer Therapy
    67 Microbiota Transfer Therapy alters
    68 NCT02504554
    69 Prevotella
    70 Rating Scale
    71 Symptom Rating Scale
    72 Transfer Therapy alters
    73 abdominal pain
    74 abnormal gut bacteria
    75 abnormal metabolites
    76 abundance
    77 abundance of Bifidobacterium
    78 activity
    79 alters
    80 analysis
    81 antibiotic treatment
    82 approach
    83 assessment
    84 autism spectrum disorder
    85 autism symptoms
    86 bacteria
    87 bacterial diversity
    88 behavior
    89 behavioral ASD symptoms
    90 behavioral symptoms
    91 beneficial changes
    92 bowel cleanse
    93 cause
    94 changes
    95 children
    96 cleanse
    97 clinical assessment
    98 clinical trials
    99 communication
    100 complex neurobiological disorder
    101 composition
    102 connection
    103 constipation
    104 diarrhea
    105 disorders
    106 diversity
    107 donor microbiota
    108 dose
    109 doses
    110 ecosystems
    111 end
    112 end of treatment
    113 engraftment
    114 environment
    115 extended fecal microbiota transplant
    116 extended-duration treatment protocol
    117 fecal microbiota transplant
    118 gastrointestinal problems
    119 gut bacteria
    120 gut environment
    121 gut microbiome
    122 gut microbiome-ASD connection
    123 gut microbiota
    124 gut microbiota composition
    125 higher initial dose
    126 human intestine
    127 impact
    128 improvement
    129 indigestion
    130 initial dose
    131 interaction
    132 interest
    133 intestine
    134 lead
    135 long-term impact
    136 low maintenance doses
    137 maintenance doses
    138 metabolites
    139 microbiome
    140 microbiome-ASD connection
    141 microbiota
    142 microbiota composition
    143 microbiota transplant
    144 model
    145 mouse model
    146 neurobiological disorder
    147 non-absorbable antibiotic treatment
    148 number
    149 open-label clinical trial
    150 open-label study
    151 oral non-absorbable antibiotic treatment
    152 overall bacterial diversity
    153 pain
    154 partial engraftment
    155 patterns
    156 previous studies
    157 problem
    158 promising approach
    159 protocol
    160 reduction
    161 registration number
    162 scale
    163 sequencing analysis
    164 severity
    165 significant improvement
    166 small open-label clinical trials
    167 social interaction
    168 spectrum disorder
    169 stereotyped pattern
    170 study
    171 study of children
    172 successful partial engraftment
    173 symptoms
    174 symptoms of constipation
    175 taxa
    176 therapy
    177 therapy alters
    178 transfer therapy
    179 transplant
    180 treatment
    181 treatment protocol
    182 trials
    183 weeks
    184 schema:name Microbiota Transfer Therapy alters gut ecosystem and improves gastrointestinal and autism symptoms: an open-label study
    185 schema:pagination 10
    186 schema:productId N5bafe18a15074c96a603618543468c1c
    187 N83916fb1cd8045218452a6f12d08a542
    188 Na8527e3ab745449094163d9968bd4e4d
    189 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074212961
    190 https://doi.org/10.1186/s40168-016-0225-7
    191 schema:sdDatePublished 2021-12-01T19:40
    192 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    193 schema:sdPublisher Nde340bd8752a412882b34850b8df736a
    194 schema:url https://doi.org/10.1186/s40168-016-0225-7
    195 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    196 sgo:sdDataset articles
    197 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    198 N068d4b6eb63f47aeb5659f59e6a773ff schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    199 schema:name Male
    200 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    201 N0a1867b2ce794e2481e92cf3252f0440 rdf:first sg:person.01341723702.36
    202 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    203 N0a75e52aeb7d4300ba5d7f680e08fe70 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    204 schema:name Diarrhea
    205 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    206 N0c2cea3b56604895b9c250b8d113b6a4 rdf:first sg:person.01007715271.18
    207 rdf:rest N23c5ca94404440ee9e12b05131dec9f2
    208 N1431c9641616498894b0e383d4cdd415 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    209 schema:name Female
    210 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    211 N17db3de5ff8b49148e3f9fb63795fa70 schema:volumeNumber 5
    212 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    213 N219dbe327b844fd483b073f404dca2d5 rdf:first sg:person.01170262543.95
    214 rdf:rest N0c2cea3b56604895b9c250b8d113b6a4
    215 N23c5ca94404440ee9e12b05131dec9f2 rdf:first sg:person.010341451647.29
    216 rdf:rest Neb8180e23ded4eeba828335facd4b3d4
    217 N2c69bec4553a40589b176c89c9cea587 schema:issueNumber 1
    218 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    219 N38524c1287eb45349f18d2690809b324 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    220 schema:name Constipation
    221 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    222 N3ca0056ba5604decbac6cffbb6f101da schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    223 schema:name Bifidobacterium
    224 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    225 N40e5c099b3b148438e7a34edd7b7d64e schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    226 schema:name Gastrointestinal Tract
    227 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    228 N43b0e599eaeb42529b53b9b2b61c3fb6 rdf:first sg:person.01300646720.13
    229 rdf:rest Nc1d67e0d99fc4fcda7ca6dd3361b286a
    230 N4bd75ae4525a464fa3a60c961118330b schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    231 schema:name Gastrointestinal Diseases
    232 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    233 N533a2d91ce33462ebe182343a43d9690 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    234 schema:name DNA, Viral
    235 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    236 N5833972abf58467fa6fc1186f4b675d7 rdf:first sg:person.016653646235.51
    237 rdf:rest Nbf29aad0f8d248268f2a9712f5fa1f99
    238 N5bafe18a15074c96a603618543468c1c schema:name dimensions_id
    239 schema:value pub.1074212961
    240 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    241 N64a73249f5e84f6596466e1ed110e32d schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    242 schema:name Bacteriophages
    243 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    244 N7460b25d96094bcd8c430fb30e2b539a schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    245 schema:name Gastrointestinal Microbiome
    246 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    247 N77e1210a2bfe4d6fbf139fed0ff9e3f6 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    248 schema:name Adolescent
    249 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    250 N83916fb1cd8045218452a6f12d08a542 schema:name doi
    251 schema:value 10.1186/s40168-016-0225-7
    252 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    253 N83df7ac4f712491ab5fa3fdf41355cfb schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    254 schema:name Abdominal Pain
    255 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    256 N8583472494ee4a10b38360ec82b45ae3 rdf:first sg:person.01310060733.68
    257 rdf:rest Nedf3735ec0f94bdcaebaf27e17428fa4
    258 Na6e50252a94a4057bffeb0cb6945a31e schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    259 schema:name Autism Spectrum Disorder
    260 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    261 Na8527e3ab745449094163d9968bd4e4d schema:name pubmed_id
    262 schema:value 28122648
    263 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    264 Nb686265437eb440ba6626919a8b73477 rdf:first sg:person.01040164115.34
    265 rdf:rest Nb72db08027d648e6a484f8c557a98eee
    266 Nb6c22bdb19a040dcb8092e28accda7c3 rdf:first sg:person.013232777303.31
    267 rdf:rest Nb686265437eb440ba6626919a8b73477
    268 Nb72db08027d648e6a484f8c557a98eee rdf:first sg:person.0624224157.70
    269 rdf:rest N0a1867b2ce794e2481e92cf3252f0440
    270 Nb8c3bea84c4c4e07b6ff85164f48d3c0 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    271 schema:name Anti-Bacterial Agents
    272 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    273 Nba083c00c2af48098f630b1c3e53dd47 rdf:first sg:person.0616372277.04
    274 rdf:rest N43b0e599eaeb42529b53b9b2b61c3fb6
    275 Nbf29aad0f8d248268f2a9712f5fa1f99 rdf:first sg:person.01326704035.18
    276 rdf:rest Nea23a5ae6d544d018fbab57ee5a29022
    277 Nc1d67e0d99fc4fcda7ca6dd3361b286a rdf:first sg:person.0752727405.01
    278 rdf:rest N219dbe327b844fd483b073f404dca2d5
    279 Nc31814df5c514e3b96e9b66bab02268a rdf:first sg:person.01062767011.03
    280 rdf:rest Nba083c00c2af48098f630b1c3e53dd47
    281 Nc4b7a935a4004546820bb84d7ace8495 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    282 schema:name Fecal Microbiota Transplantation
    283 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    284 Nc8242bc62da24b5b8b9651b9cdb7dccc schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    285 schema:name Humans
    286 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    287 Nc94cb9003f5242f7a64ee0e28f4de03b schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    288 schema:name Infant
    289 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    290 Nc97cb4fb5b614ceb94ac8bed4dcee880 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    291 schema:name High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
    292 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    293 Ncf923417a2ca4ba990dca8e54ab71cdb schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    294 schema:name Desulfovibrio
    295 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    296 Nd0d06fe558444fd08d283b14352edfbc schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    297 schema:name Child
    298 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    299 Nde340bd8752a412882b34850b8df736a schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    300 rdf:type schema:Organization
    301 Ne36041d9425341a58d88d72a255adf66 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    302 schema:name Probiotics
    303 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    304 Nea23a5ae6d544d018fbab57ee5a29022 rdf:first sg:person.01073261101.46
    305 rdf:rest Nb6c22bdb19a040dcb8092e28accda7c3
    306 Neb8180e23ded4eeba828335facd4b3d4 rdf:first sg:person.01321071354.25
    307 rdf:rest N8583472494ee4a10b38360ec82b45ae3
    308 Nedf3735ec0f94bdcaebaf27e17428fa4 rdf:first sg:person.01116700234.07
    309 rdf:rest N5833972abf58467fa6fc1186f4b675d7
    310 Nf257659d68f14dffa2540fb6e197974b schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    311 schema:name Prevotella
    312 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    313 anzsrc-for:11 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    314 schema:name Medical and Health Sciences
    315 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    316 anzsrc-for:1103 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    317 schema:name Clinical Sciences
    318 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    319 sg:grant.3803945 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1186/s40168-016-0225-7
    320 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    321 sg:journal.1048878 schema:issn 2049-2618
    322 schema:name Microbiome
    323 schema:publisher Springer Nature
    324 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    325 sg:person.01007715271.18 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.32224.35
    326 schema:familyName Fasano
    327 schema:givenName Alessio
    328 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01007715271.18
    329 rdf:type schema:Person
    330 sg:person.010341451647.29 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.17635.36
    331 schema:familyName Khoruts
    332 schema:givenName Alexander
    333 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010341451647.29
    334 rdf:type schema:Person
    335 sg:person.01040164115.34 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.261331.4
    336 schema:familyName Sullivan
    337 schema:givenName Matthew B.
    338 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01040164115.34
    339 rdf:type schema:Person
    340 sg:person.01062767011.03 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.215654.1
    341 schema:familyName Kang
    342 schema:givenName Dae-Wook
    343 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01062767011.03
    344 rdf:type schema:Person
    345 sg:person.01073261101.46 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.17635.36
    346 schema:familyName Sadowsky
    347 schema:givenName Michael J.
    348 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01073261101.46
    349 rdf:type schema:Person
    350 sg:person.01116700234.07 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:None
    351 schema:familyName McDonough-Means
    352 schema:givenName Sharon
    353 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01116700234.07
    354 rdf:type schema:Person
    355 sg:person.01170262543.95 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.261331.4
    356 schema:familyName Chittick
    357 schema:givenName Lauren
    358 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01170262543.95
    359 rdf:type schema:Person
    360 sg:person.01300646720.13 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.261331.4
    361 schema:familyName Gregory
    362 schema:givenName Ann C.
    363 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01300646720.13
    364 rdf:type schema:Person
    365 sg:person.01310060733.68 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.215654.1
    366 schema:familyName Maldonado
    367 schema:givenName Juan
    368 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01310060733.68
    369 rdf:type schema:Person
    370 sg:person.01321071354.25 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.215654.1
    371 schema:familyName Geis
    372 schema:givenName Elizabeth
    373 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01321071354.25
    374 rdf:type schema:Person
    375 sg:person.013232777303.31 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.261120.6
    376 schema:familyName Lipson
    377 schema:givenName Karen Schwarzberg
    378 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013232777303.31
    379 rdf:type schema:Person
    380 sg:person.01326704035.18 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.261331.4
    381 schema:familyName Roux
    382 schema:givenName Simon
    383 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01326704035.18
    384 rdf:type schema:Person
    385 sg:person.01341723702.36 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.215654.1
    386 schema:familyName Krajmalnik-Brown
    387 schema:givenName Rosa
    388 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01341723702.36
    389 rdf:type schema:Person
    390 sg:person.016653646235.51 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.215654.1
    391 schema:familyName Pollard
    392 schema:givenName Elena L.
    393 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016653646235.51
    394 rdf:type schema:Person
    395 sg:person.0616372277.04 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.215654.1
    396 schema:familyName Adams
    397 schema:givenName James B.
    398 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0616372277.04
    399 rdf:type schema:Person
    400 sg:person.0624224157.70 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.261120.6
    401 schema:familyName Caporaso
    402 schema:givenName J. Gregory
    403 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0624224157.70
    404 rdf:type schema:Person
    405 sg:person.0752727405.01 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.492342.a
    406 schema:familyName Borody
    407 schema:givenName Thomas
    408 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0752727405.01
    409 rdf:type schema:Person
    410 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02172145 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017747169
    411 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02172145
    412 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    413 sg:pub.10.1007/s10803-013-1973-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045830576
    414 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-013-1973-x
    415 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    416 sg:pub.10.1007/s13311-015-0364-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005741708
    417 https://doi.org/10.1007/s13311-015-0364-8
    418 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    419 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1008841022998 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049233843
    420 https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1008841022998
    421 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    422 sg:pub.10.1038/ajg.2011.482 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017120105
    423 https://doi.org/10.1038/ajg.2011.482
    424 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    425 sg:pub.10.1038/ajg.2012.60 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003126756
    426 https://doi.org/10.1038/ajg.2012.60
    427 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    428 sg:pub.10.1038/ajg.2014.195 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009328873
    429 https://doi.org/10.1038/ajg.2014.195
    430 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    431 sg:pub.10.1038/ismej.2010.1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003110594
    432 https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2010.1
    433 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    434 sg:pub.10.1038/ismej.2012.8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038992953
    435 https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2012.8
    436 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    437 sg:pub.10.1038/ismej.2015.183 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049382822
    438 https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2015.183
    439 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    440 sg:pub.10.1038/nature08821 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050498034
    441 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08821
    442 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    443 sg:pub.10.1038/nature09199 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031776599
    444 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09199
    445 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    446 sg:pub.10.1038/nature11234 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007740093
    447 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11234
    448 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    449 sg:pub.10.1038/nature13459 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030016698
    450 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13459
    451 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    452 sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.1923 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006541515
    453 https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.1923
    454 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    455 sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.2276 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039195944
    456 https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.2276
    457 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    458 sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.f.303 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009032055
    459 https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.f.303
    460 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    461 sg:pub.10.1038/nrmicro2536 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032003994
    462 https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro2536
    463 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    464 sg:pub.10.1038/nrmicro3404 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052276978
    465 https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro3404
    466 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    467 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-230x-11-22 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034060928
    468 https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-230x-11-22
    469 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    470 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2431-11-111 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050021551
    471 https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2431-11-111
    472 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    473 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2431-11-30 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036108338
    474 https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2431-11-30
    475 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    476 sg:pub.10.1186/2040-2392-4-42 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007220511
    477 https://doi.org/10.1186/2040-2392-4-42
    478 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    479 grid-institutes:None schema:alternateName Integrative Developmental Pediatrics, Tucson, AZ 85701 USA
    480 schema:name Integrative Developmental Pediatrics, Tucson, AZ 85701 USA
    481 rdf:type schema:Organization
    482 grid-institutes:grid.17635.36 schema:alternateName Center for Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55414 USA
    483 Department of Soil, Water and Climate, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108 USA
    484 schema:name BioTechnology Institute, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108 USA
    485 Center for Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55414 USA
    486 Department of Soil, Water and Climate, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108 USA
    487 Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA
    488 rdf:type schema:Organization
    489 grid-institutes:grid.215654.1 schema:alternateName Biodesign Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA
    490 School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA
    491 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA
    492 schema:name Biodesign Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA
    493 School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA
    494 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA
    495 rdf:type schema:Organization
    496 grid-institutes:grid.261120.6 schema:alternateName Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 USA
    497 Pathogen and Microbiome Institute, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 USA
    498 schema:name Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 USA
    499 Pathogen and Microbiome Institute, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 USA
    500 rdf:type schema:Organization
    501 grid-institutes:grid.261331.4 schema:alternateName Department of Civil, Environmental and Geodetic Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43120 USA
    502 Department of Microbiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 USA
    503 schema:name Department of Civil, Environmental and Geodetic Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43120 USA
    504 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85287 USA
    505 Department of Microbiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 USA
    506 Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA
    507 rdf:type schema:Organization
    508 grid-institutes:grid.32224.35 schema:alternateName Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Boston, MA 02114 USA
    509 schema:name Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Boston, MA 02114 USA
    510 rdf:type schema:Organization
    511 grid-institutes:grid.492342.a schema:alternateName Centre for Digestive Diseases, Five Dock, NSW 2046 Australia
    512 schema:name Centre for Digestive Diseases, Five Dock, NSW 2046 Australia
    513 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...