Intravenous lidocaine infusion as a component of multimodal analgesia for colorectal surgery—measurement of plasma levels View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2019-12

AUTHORS

E. Greenwood, S. Nimmo, H. Paterson, N. Homer, I. Foo

ABSTRACT

Background: Growing evidence suggests that intravenous lidocaine as a component of multimodal analgesia improves recovery after major colorectal surgery. There is little published data regarding ideal dosing and target plasma concentration in this context, and we wanted to establish our dosing schedule was safe by measuring blood levels of lidocaine. Methods: We measured the plasma lidocaine concentration of 32 patients at 30 min, 6 h and 12 h after starting intravenous lidocaine infusion for analgesia after major colorectal surgery. Patients received a bolus of 1.5 mg kg-1 over 20 min at the time of induction of anaesthesia. This was followed by a continuous infusion of 2% w/v lidocaine at 3 ml hr-1 (60 mg hr-1) for patients weighing up to 70 kg and 6 ml hr-1 (120 mg hr-1) for patients weighing over 70 kg, using actual body weight. Results: The overall mean plasma lidocaine concentration was 4.0 μg ml-1 (range 0.6-12.3 μg ml-1). In patients treated with the higher infusion dose, the mean concentration was 4.6 μg ml-1 compared to 3.2 μg ml-1 in those patients on the lower dose. Mean levels were higher at 6 h than 30 min and higher again at 12 h. There were no adverse events or reports of symptoms of local anaesthetic toxicity. Conclusions: Whilst there were no signs or symptoms of lidocaine toxicity in our patients, there was a wide range of plasma concentrations including some over 10 μg ml-1; a level above which symptoms of toxicity may be expected. We have changed our dosing protocol to using ideal rather than actual body weight based on these results. More... »

PAGES

1

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s13741-019-0112-4

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13741-019-0112-4

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1112387865

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30858969


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1103", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Clinical Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/11", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Medical and Health Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Western General Hospital", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417068.c", 
          "name": [
            "Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Greenwood", 
        "givenName": "E.", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Western General Hospital", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417068.c", 
          "name": [
            "Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Nimmo", 
        "givenName": "S.", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Western General Hospital", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417068.c", 
          "name": [
            "Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Paterson", 
        "givenName": "H.", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Edinburgh", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4305.2", 
          "name": [
            "Queen\u2019s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Homer", 
        "givenName": "N.", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Western General Hospital", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417068.c", 
          "name": [
            "Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Foo", 
        "givenName": "I.", 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/bjaed/mkw008", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006340058"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd009642.pub2", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016585584"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0034-7094(10)70041-6", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016994717"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1960.03020140029007", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023345582"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2005.02.002", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026160329"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s12630-014-0275-x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030152687", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s12630-014-0275-x"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2044.1961.tb13426.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030193617"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1213/01.ane.0000104582.71710.ee", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032747554"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1213/01.ane.0000104582.71710.ee", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032747554"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2044.1954.tb01533.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035483369"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/aap.0b013e3181e8d5da", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036058878"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/aap.0b013e3181e8d5da", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036058878"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/aap.0b013e3181e8d5da", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036058878"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1590/s0034-70942008000300011", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036682317"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00268-015-3105-6", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040183590", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00268-015-3105-6"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd003345.pub2", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052356753"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1213/00000539-199002001-00414", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064387876"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.5313/wja.v4.i2.17", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1072758756"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-87-6-700", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1073735177"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2019-12", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2019-12-01", 
    "description": "Background: Growing evidence suggests that intravenous lidocaine as a component of multimodal analgesia improves recovery after major colorectal surgery. There is little published data regarding ideal dosing and target plasma concentration in this context, and we wanted to establish our dosing schedule was safe by measuring blood levels of lidocaine.\nMethods: We measured the plasma lidocaine concentration of 32 patients at 30\u2009min, 6\u2009h and 12\u2009h after starting intravenous lidocaine infusion for analgesia after major colorectal surgery. Patients received a bolus of 1.5\u2009mg\u2009kg-1 over 20\u2009min at the time of induction of anaesthesia. This was followed by a continuous infusion of 2% w/v lidocaine at 3\u2009ml\u2009hr-1 (60\u2009mg\u2009hr-1) for patients weighing up to 70\u2009kg and 6\u2009ml\u2009hr-1 (120\u2009mg\u2009hr-1) for patients weighing over 70\u2009kg, using actual body weight.\nResults: The overall mean plasma lidocaine concentration was 4.0\u2009\u03bcg\u2009ml-1 (range 0.6-12.3\u2009\u03bcg\u2009ml-1). In patients treated with the higher infusion dose, the mean concentration was 4.6\u2009\u03bcg\u2009ml-1 compared to 3.2\u2009\u03bcg\u2009ml-1 in those patients on the lower dose. Mean levels were higher at 6\u2009h than 30\u2009min and higher again at 12\u2009h. There were no adverse events or reports of symptoms of local anaesthetic toxicity.\nConclusions: Whilst there were no signs or symptoms of lidocaine toxicity in our patients, there was a wide range of plasma concentrations including some over 10\u2009\u03bcg\u2009ml-1; a level above which symptoms of toxicity may be expected. We have changed our dosing protocol to using ideal rather than actual body weight based on these results.", 
    "genre": "research_article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s13741-019-0112-4", 
    "inLanguage": [
      "en"
    ], 
    "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1048463", 
        "issn": [
          "2616-339X", 
          "2617-2925"
        ], 
        "name": "Perioperative Medicine", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "1", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "8"
      }
    ], 
    "name": "Intravenous lidocaine infusion as a component of multimodal analgesia for colorectal surgery\u2014measurement of plasma levels", 
    "pagination": "1", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "readcube_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "04342efdd91c1380bfd0bb7f206e6ac502c96ebb5f1fdbc008d07d29ecf803a2"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "30858969"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "101609072"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1186/s13741-019-0112-4"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1112387865"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1186/s13741-019-0112-4", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1112387865"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T13:21", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000368_0000000368/records_78972_00000001.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "https://link.springer.com/10.1186%2Fs13741-019-0112-4"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s13741-019-0112-4'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s13741-019-0112-4'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s13741-019-0112-4'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s13741-019-0112-4'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

145 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      45 URIs      21 LITERALS      9 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1186/s13741-019-0112-4 schema:about anzsrc-for:11
2 anzsrc-for:1103
3 schema:author N5a4400ec661e47309f113aad7e8fe5c9
4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/s00268-015-3105-6
5 sg:pub.10.1007/s12630-014-0275-x
6 https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1960.03020140029007
7 https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd003345.pub2
8 https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd009642.pub2
9 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2005.02.002
10 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0034-7094(10)70041-6
11 https://doi.org/10.1093/bjaed/mkw008
12 https://doi.org/10.1097/aap.0b013e3181e8d5da
13 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2044.1954.tb01533.x
14 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2044.1961.tb13426.x
15 https://doi.org/10.1213/00000539-199002001-00414
16 https://doi.org/10.1213/01.ane.0000104582.71710.ee
17 https://doi.org/10.1590/s0034-70942008000300011
18 https://doi.org/10.5313/wja.v4.i2.17
19 https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-87-6-700
20 schema:datePublished 2019-12
21 schema:datePublishedReg 2019-12-01
22 schema:description Background: Growing evidence suggests that intravenous lidocaine as a component of multimodal analgesia improves recovery after major colorectal surgery. There is little published data regarding ideal dosing and target plasma concentration in this context, and we wanted to establish our dosing schedule was safe by measuring blood levels of lidocaine. Methods: We measured the plasma lidocaine concentration of 32 patients at 30 min, 6 h and 12 h after starting intravenous lidocaine infusion for analgesia after major colorectal surgery. Patients received a bolus of 1.5 mg kg-1 over 20 min at the time of induction of anaesthesia. This was followed by a continuous infusion of 2% w/v lidocaine at 3 ml hr-1 (60 mg hr-1) for patients weighing up to 70 kg and 6 ml hr-1 (120 mg hr-1) for patients weighing over 70 kg, using actual body weight. Results: The overall mean plasma lidocaine concentration was 4.0 μg ml-1 (range 0.6-12.3 μg ml-1). In patients treated with the higher infusion dose, the mean concentration was 4.6 μg ml-1 compared to 3.2 μg ml-1 in those patients on the lower dose. Mean levels were higher at 6 h than 30 min and higher again at 12 h. There were no adverse events or reports of symptoms of local anaesthetic toxicity. Conclusions: Whilst there were no signs or symptoms of lidocaine toxicity in our patients, there was a wide range of plasma concentrations including some over 10 μg ml-1; a level above which symptoms of toxicity may be expected. We have changed our dosing protocol to using ideal rather than actual body weight based on these results.
23 schema:genre research_article
24 schema:inLanguage en
25 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
26 schema:isPartOf N5b2f9cfc6a2f42ce937d2f1fef0a3d16
27 Nbcc798f8608244799d629e531f134a49
28 sg:journal.1048463
29 schema:name Intravenous lidocaine infusion as a component of multimodal analgesia for colorectal surgery—measurement of plasma levels
30 schema:pagination 1
31 schema:productId N1df11aaceab341baab1648c7fa327e13
32 N486b90335ab3492fb76a98eed8d92bd0
33 N78a0252f8a9b40e0842e6039411b20b3
34 Nbe337c62e2304cccab2cc94ab66928dd
35 Ne7bd503db4704c939bfc0d0d863fde73
36 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1112387865
37 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13741-019-0112-4
38 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T13:21
39 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
40 schema:sdPublisher N97b8eac447424ac2a5fba58b7e9569f0
41 schema:url https://link.springer.com/10.1186%2Fs13741-019-0112-4
42 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
43 sgo:sdDataset articles
44 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
45 N1df11aaceab341baab1648c7fa327e13 schema:name dimensions_id
46 schema:value pub.1112387865
47 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
48 N256c1f1315d04ef49e665d768e3f8d52 rdf:first N93be0778224a40d6b579bfd0743b6c1f
49 rdf:rest Ne33e05d4f8bd416c821e02899eb723e2
50 N486b90335ab3492fb76a98eed8d92bd0 schema:name nlm_unique_id
51 schema:value 101609072
52 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
53 N5a4400ec661e47309f113aad7e8fe5c9 rdf:first N66c52a3bb84a4492902409922d0216c6
54 rdf:rest N256c1f1315d04ef49e665d768e3f8d52
55 N5b2f9cfc6a2f42ce937d2f1fef0a3d16 schema:volumeNumber 8
56 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
57 N66c52a3bb84a4492902409922d0216c6 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417068.c
58 schema:familyName Greenwood
59 schema:givenName E.
60 rdf:type schema:Person
61 N78a0252f8a9b40e0842e6039411b20b3 schema:name pubmed_id
62 schema:value 30858969
63 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
64 N827eeeb458454cb08825a357d99288a6 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417068.c
65 schema:familyName Paterson
66 schema:givenName H.
67 rdf:type schema:Person
68 N8980db4de9a044a8a7bbdb20776dd7aa schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4305.2
69 schema:familyName Homer
70 schema:givenName N.
71 rdf:type schema:Person
72 N93be0778224a40d6b579bfd0743b6c1f schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417068.c
73 schema:familyName Nimmo
74 schema:givenName S.
75 rdf:type schema:Person
76 N97b8eac447424ac2a5fba58b7e9569f0 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
77 rdf:type schema:Organization
78 Na73c5c2c3b6447af93af90f7b40af46e schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417068.c
79 schema:familyName Foo
80 schema:givenName I.
81 rdf:type schema:Person
82 Nab1c5cd887e54545bf839f3ae6c1c6f4 rdf:first Na73c5c2c3b6447af93af90f7b40af46e
83 rdf:rest rdf:nil
84 Nbcc798f8608244799d629e531f134a49 schema:issueNumber 1
85 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
86 Nbe337c62e2304cccab2cc94ab66928dd schema:name doi
87 schema:value 10.1186/s13741-019-0112-4
88 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
89 Nbe646c50c8d547929b468ec504cdee3d rdf:first N8980db4de9a044a8a7bbdb20776dd7aa
90 rdf:rest Nab1c5cd887e54545bf839f3ae6c1c6f4
91 Ne33e05d4f8bd416c821e02899eb723e2 rdf:first N827eeeb458454cb08825a357d99288a6
92 rdf:rest Nbe646c50c8d547929b468ec504cdee3d
93 Ne7bd503db4704c939bfc0d0d863fde73 schema:name readcube_id
94 schema:value 04342efdd91c1380bfd0bb7f206e6ac502c96ebb5f1fdbc008d07d29ecf803a2
95 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
96 anzsrc-for:11 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
97 schema:name Medical and Health Sciences
98 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
99 anzsrc-for:1103 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
100 schema:name Clinical Sciences
101 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
102 sg:journal.1048463 schema:issn 2616-339X
103 2617-2925
104 schema:name Perioperative Medicine
105 rdf:type schema:Periodical
106 sg:pub.10.1007/s00268-015-3105-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040183590
107 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00268-015-3105-6
108 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
109 sg:pub.10.1007/s12630-014-0275-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030152687
110 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12630-014-0275-x
111 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
112 https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1960.03020140029007 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023345582
113 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
114 https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd003345.pub2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052356753
115 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
116 https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd009642.pub2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016585584
117 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
118 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2005.02.002 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026160329
119 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
120 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0034-7094(10)70041-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016994717
121 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
122 https://doi.org/10.1093/bjaed/mkw008 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006340058
123 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
124 https://doi.org/10.1097/aap.0b013e3181e8d5da schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036058878
125 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
126 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2044.1954.tb01533.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035483369
127 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
128 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2044.1961.tb13426.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030193617
129 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
130 https://doi.org/10.1213/00000539-199002001-00414 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064387876
131 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
132 https://doi.org/10.1213/01.ane.0000104582.71710.ee schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032747554
133 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
134 https://doi.org/10.1590/s0034-70942008000300011 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036682317
135 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
136 https://doi.org/10.5313/wja.v4.i2.17 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1072758756
137 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
138 https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-87-6-700 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1073735177
139 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
140 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417068.c schema:alternateName Western General Hospital
141 schema:name Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK
142 rdf:type schema:Organization
143 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4305.2 schema:alternateName University of Edinburgh
144 schema:name Queen’s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK
145 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...