Female-biased sexual dimorphism of corticotropin-releasing factor neurons in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2019-01-28

AUTHORS

Katsuya Uchida, Hiroko Otsuka, Masahiro Morishita, Shinji Tsukahara, Tatsuya Sato, Kenji Sakimura, Keiichi Itoi

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) contains the highest density of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-producing neurons in the brain. CRF-immunoreactive neurons show a female-biased sexual dimorphism in the dorsolateral BNST in the rat. Since CRF neurons cannot be immunostained clearly with available CRF antibodies in the mouse, we used a mouse line, in which modified yellow fluorescent protein (Venus) was inserted to the CRF gene, and the Neo cassette was removed, to examine the morphological characteristics of CRF neurons in the dorsolateral BNST. Developmental changes of CRF neurons were examined from postnatal stages to adulthood. Gonadectomy (GDX) was carried out in adult male and female mice to examine the effects of sex steroids on the number of CRF neurons in the dorsolateral BNST. METHODS: The number of Venus-expressing neurons, stained by immunofluorescence, was compared between male and female mice over the course of development. GDX was carried out in adult mice. Immunohistochemistry, in combination with Nissl staining, was carried out, and the effects of sex or gonadal steroids were examined by estimating the number of Venus-expressing neurons, as well as the total number of neurons or glial cells, in each BNST subnucleus, using a stereological method. RESULTS: Most Venus-expressing neurons co-expressed Crf mRNA in the dorsolateral BNST. They constitute a group of neurons without calbindin immunoreactivity, which makes a contrast to the principal nucleus of the BNST that is characterized by calbindin immunostaining. In the dorsolateral BNST, the number of Venus-expressing neurons increased across developmental stages until adulthood. Sexual difference in the number of Venus-expressing neurons was not evident by postnatal day 5. In adulthood, however, there was a significant female predominance in the number of Venus expressing neurons in two subnuclei of the dorsolateral BNST, i.e., the oval nucleus of the BNST (ovBNST) and the anterolateral BNST (alBNST). The number of Venus-expressing neurons was smaller significantly in ovariectomized females compared with proestrous females in either ovBNST or alBNST, and greater significantly in orchiectomized males compared with gonadally intact males in ovBNST. The total number of neurons was also greater significantly in females than in males in ovBNST and alBNST, but it was not affected by GDX. CONCLUSION: Venus-expressing CRF neurons showed female-biased sexual dimorphism in ovBNST and alBNST of the mouse. Expression of Venus in these subnuclei was controlled by gonadal steroids. More... »

PAGES

6

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s13293-019-0221-2

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0221-2

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https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1111751819

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30691514


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87 gonadal steroids
88 gonadectomy
89 group
90 groups of neurons
91 high density
92 immunofluorescence
93 immunohistochemistry
94 immunoreactivity
95 immunostaining
96 intact males
97 lines
98 mRNA
99 males
100 method
101 mice
102 morphological characteristics
103 mouse lines
104 neo cassette
105 neurons
106 neurons co-expressed Crf mRNA
107 nucleus
108 number
109 number of Venus
110 orchiectomized males
111 ovBNST
112 oval nuclei
113 ovariectomized females
114 postnatal day 5
115 postnatal stages
116 predominance
117 principal nucleus
118 proestrous females
119 protein
120 rats
121 sex
122 sex steroids
123 sexual differences
124 sexual dimorphism
125 significant female predominance
126 stage
127 staining
128 stereological methods
129 steroids
130 stria terminalis
131 subnuclei
132 subnucleus
133 terminalis
134 total number
135 yellow fluorescent protein
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