Capsular polysaccharide inhibits adhesion of Bifidobacterium longum 105-A to enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells and phagocytosis by macrophages View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2017-05-01

AUTHORS

Amin Tahoun, Hisayoshi Masutani, Hanem El-Sharkawy, Trudi Gillespie, Ryo P. Honda, Kazuo Kuwata, Mizuho Inagaki, Tomio Yabe, Izumi Nomura, Tohru Suzuki

ABSTRACT

BackgroundBifidobacterium longum 105-A produces markedly high amounts of capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and exopolysaccharides (EPS) that should play distinct roles in bacterial–host interactions. To identify the biological function of B. longum 105-A CPS/EPS, we carried out an informatics survey of the genome and identified the EPS-encoding genetic locus of B. longum 105-A that is responsible for the production of CPS/EPS. The role of CPS/EPS in the adaptation to gut tract environment and bacteria-gut cell interactions was investigated using the ΔcpsD mutant.ResultsA putative B. longum 105-A CPS/EPS gene cluster was shown to consist of 24 putative genes encoding a priming glycosyltransferase (cpsD), 7 glycosyltransferases, 4 CPS/EPS synthesis machinery proteins, and 3 dTDP-L-rhamnose synthesis enzymes. These enzymes should form a complex system that is involved in the biogenesis of CPS and/or EPS. To confirm this, we constructed a knockout mutant (ΔcpsD) by a double cross-over homologous recombination. Compared to wild-type, the ∆cpsD mutant showed a similar growth rate. However, it showed quicker sedimentation and formation of cell clusters in liquid culture. EPS was secreted by the ∆cpsD mutant, but had altered monosaccharide composition and molecular weight. Comparison of the morphology of B. longum 105-A wild-type and ∆cpsD by negative staining in light and electron microscopy revealed that the formation of fimbriae is drastically enhanced in the ∆cpsD mutant while the B. longum 105-A wild-type was coated by a thick capsule. The fimbriae expression in the ∆cpsD was closely associated with the disappearance of the CPS layer. The wild-type showed low pH tolerance, adaptation, and bile salt tolerance, but the ∆cpsD mutant had lost this survivability in gastric and duodenal environments. The ∆cpsD mutant was extensively able to bind to the human colon carcinoma Caco-2 cell line and was phagocytosed by murine macrophage RAW 264.7, whereas the wild-type did not bind to epithelial cells and totally resisted internalization by macrophages.ConclusionsOur results suggest that CPS/EPS production and fimbriae formation are negatively correlated and play key roles in the survival, attachment, and colonization of B. longum 105-A in the gut. More... »

PAGES

27

References to SciGraph publications

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  • Journal

    TITLE

    Gut Pathogens

    ISSUE

    1

    VOLUME

    9

    Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s13099-017-0177-x

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13099-017-0177-x

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1084956153

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28469711


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        "description": "BackgroundBifidobacterium longum 105-A produces markedly high amounts of capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and exopolysaccharides (EPS) that should play distinct roles in bacterial\u2013host interactions. To identify the biological function of B. longum 105-A CPS/EPS, we carried out an informatics survey of the genome and identified the EPS-encoding genetic locus of B. longum 105-A that is responsible for the production of CPS/EPS. The role of CPS/EPS in the adaptation to gut tract environment and bacteria-gut cell interactions was investigated using the \u0394cpsD mutant.ResultsA putative B. longum 105-A CPS/EPS gene cluster was shown to consist of 24 putative genes encoding a priming glycosyltransferase (cpsD), 7 glycosyltransferases, 4 CPS/EPS synthesis machinery proteins, and 3 dTDP-L-rhamnose synthesis enzymes. These enzymes should form a complex system that is involved in the biogenesis of CPS and/or EPS. To confirm this, we constructed a knockout mutant (\u0394cpsD) by a double cross-over homologous recombination. Compared to wild-type, the \u2206cpsD mutant showed a similar growth rate. However, it showed quicker sedimentation and formation of cell clusters in liquid culture. EPS was secreted by the \u2206cpsD mutant, but had altered monosaccharide composition and molecular weight. Comparison of the morphology of B. longum 105-A wild-type and \u2206cpsD by negative staining in light and electron microscopy revealed that the formation of fimbriae is drastically enhanced in the \u2206cpsD mutant while the B. longum 105-A wild-type was coated by a thick capsule. The fimbriae expression in the \u2206cpsD was closely associated with the disappearance of the CPS layer. The wild-type showed low pH tolerance, adaptation, and bile salt tolerance, but the \u2206cpsD mutant had lost this survivability in gastric and duodenal environments. The \u2206cpsD mutant was extensively able to bind to the human colon carcinoma Caco-2 cell line and was phagocytosed by murine macrophage RAW 264.7, whereas the wild-type did not bind to epithelial cells and totally resisted internalization by macrophages.ConclusionsOur results suggest that CPS/EPS production and fimbriae formation are negatively correlated and play key roles in the survival, attachment, and colonization of B. longum 105-A in the gut.", 
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    22 schema:description BackgroundBifidobacterium longum 105-A produces markedly high amounts of capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and exopolysaccharides (EPS) that should play distinct roles in bacterial–host interactions. To identify the biological function of B. longum 105-A CPS/EPS, we carried out an informatics survey of the genome and identified the EPS-encoding genetic locus of B. longum 105-A that is responsible for the production of CPS/EPS. The role of CPS/EPS in the adaptation to gut tract environment and bacteria-gut cell interactions was investigated using the ΔcpsD mutant.ResultsA putative B. longum 105-A CPS/EPS gene cluster was shown to consist of 24 putative genes encoding a priming glycosyltransferase (cpsD), 7 glycosyltransferases, 4 CPS/EPS synthesis machinery proteins, and 3 dTDP-L-rhamnose synthesis enzymes. These enzymes should form a complex system that is involved in the biogenesis of CPS and/or EPS. To confirm this, we constructed a knockout mutant (ΔcpsD) by a double cross-over homologous recombination. Compared to wild-type, the ∆cpsD mutant showed a similar growth rate. However, it showed quicker sedimentation and formation of cell clusters in liquid culture. EPS was secreted by the ∆cpsD mutant, but had altered monosaccharide composition and molecular weight. Comparison of the morphology of B. longum 105-A wild-type and ∆cpsD by negative staining in light and electron microscopy revealed that the formation of fimbriae is drastically enhanced in the ∆cpsD mutant while the B. longum 105-A wild-type was coated by a thick capsule. The fimbriae expression in the ∆cpsD was closely associated with the disappearance of the CPS layer. The wild-type showed low pH tolerance, adaptation, and bile salt tolerance, but the ∆cpsD mutant had lost this survivability in gastric and duodenal environments. The ∆cpsD mutant was extensively able to bind to the human colon carcinoma Caco-2 cell line and was phagocytosed by murine macrophage RAW 264.7, whereas the wild-type did not bind to epithelial cells and totally resisted internalization by macrophages.ConclusionsOur results suggest that CPS/EPS production and fimbriae formation are negatively correlated and play key roles in the survival, attachment, and colonization of B. longum 105-A in the gut.
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