Efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard®) in preventing the transmission of Leishmania infantum and Dirofilaria immitis to sheltered dogs in a highly ... View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2021-07-29

AUTHORS

Rossella Panarese, Roberta Iatta, Jairo Alfonso Mendoza-Roldan, Andrea Zatelli, Frederic Beugnet, Domenico Otranto

ABSTRACT

BackgroundLeishmania infantum and Dirofilaria immitis are among the most important canine vector-borne pathogens (CVBPs) of zoonotic concern in Europe. In endemic areas for both of these CVBPs, the use of systemic ectoparasiticides, such as afoxolaner (NexGard®; Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health), may have the potential for controlling these infections. The aim of this study was to assess, for the first time, the insecticidal efficacy of NexGard® in decreasing the transmission of D. immitis and L. infantum to sheltered dogs living in a hyperendemic area, compared to the year before treatment, as well as its impact on the abundance of mosquito and sand fly populations.MethodsAll dogs (n = 179) enrolled in the study were divided into two groups based on their infection status at enrollment: a non-infected group (G1) and an infected group (G2; infected with D. immitis, L. infantum or both). The study was conducted from March 2020 to March 2021. In order to exclude all animals infected with L. infantum and D. immitis before March 2020 (sampling time: T0), dogs in G1 were sampled in June (T1; i.e. T0 + 90 days) and in October 2020 (T2; i.e. T0 + 210 days). From March to September 2020, all animals (G1 and G2) were weighed and treated monthly with NexGard®. Animals in G1 were tested for the last time in March 2021 (T3; i.e. T0 + 330 days) for assessing post-treatment incidence rate of infection and prevention efficacy.ResultsThe post-treatment incidence of D. immitis was 3.7% (1/27; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.2–18.1) and that of L. infantum was 3.6% (3/83; 95% CI: 1.0–10.1). Considering the annual incidence in 2019 and 2020, the protective efficacy against D. immitis and L. infantum infections was 94.2 and 64%, respectively. Of the female mosquitoes collected (n = 146), only one pool out of 50 tested positive for D. immitis DNA, whereas out of 1252 female Sergentomya minuta specimens collected, only four tested positive for L. infantum (0.3%).ConclusionsAfoxolaner is efficacious in decreasing the rate of transmission of both D. immitis and L. infantum; however, comparison of the pre- and post-treatment period demonstrated that there was a significant difference only in the seasonal incidences of D. immitis infection. Preventive measures are recommended throughout the year in endemic areas to reduce the risk of pathogen transmission to animals and humans.Graphical abstract More... »

PAGES

381

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2014-07-14. Efficacy of a slow-release imidacloprid (10%)/flumethrin (4.5%) collar for the prevention of canine leishmaniosis in PARASITES & VECTORS
  • 2015-03-03. First molecular identification of mosquito vectors of Dirofilaria immitis in continental Portugal in PARASITES & VECTORS
  • 2014-10-17. Morphological keys for the identification of Italian phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in PARASITES & VECTORS
  • 2020-04-15. Leishmania infantum and Dirofilaria immitis infections in Italy, 2009–2019: changing distribution patterns in PARASITES & VECTORS
  • 2009-03-26. Changing distribution patterns of canine vector borne diseases in Italy: leishmaniosis vs. dirofilariosis in PARASITES & VECTORS
  • 2021-03-23. Dirofilarioses in two cats in southern Italy in PARASITOLOGY RESEARCH
  • 2014-06-23. The ability of an oral formulation of afoxolaner to block the transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs in PARASITES & VECTORS
  • 2012-04-20. Molecular xenomonitoring of Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens in mosquitoes from north-eastern Italy by real-time PCR coupled with melting curve analysis in PARASITES & VECTORS
  • 2000. Medical Entomology, A Textbook on Public Health and Veterinary Problems Caused by Arthropods in NONE
  • 2018-04-05. Phlebotomine mortality effect of systemic insecticides administered to dogs in PARASITES & VECTORS
  • 2017-06-23. Ticks and associated pathogens in dogs from Greece in PARASITES & VECTORS
  • 2010. Mosquitoes and Their Control in NONE
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s13071-021-04883-3

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-021-04883-3

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1140047992

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34325730


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/11", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Medical and Health Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1108", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Medical Microbiology", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1117", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Public Health and Health Services", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Animals", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Dirofilaria immitis", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Dirofilariasis", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Dog Diseases", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Dogs", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Endemic Diseases", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Female", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Insect Vectors", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Isoxazoles", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Leishmania infantum", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Leishmaniasis, Visceral", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Mosquito Vectors", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Naphthalenes", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Psychodidae", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Weather", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Valenzano, Italy", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.7644.1", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Valenzano, Italy"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Panarese", 
            "givenName": "Rossella", 
            "id": "sg:person.014254507271.73", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014254507271.73"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Valenzano, Italy", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.7644.1", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Valenzano, Italy"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Iatta", 
            "givenName": "Roberta", 
            "id": "sg:person.0602551424.87", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0602551424.87"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Valenzano, Italy", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.7644.1", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Valenzano, Italy"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Mendoza-Roldan", 
            "givenName": "Jairo Alfonso", 
            "id": "sg:person.014277336761.08", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014277336761.08"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Valenzano, Italy", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.7644.1", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Valenzano, Italy"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Zatelli", 
            "givenName": "Andrea", 
            "id": "sg:person.01253103573.37", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01253103573.37"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health, Lyon, France", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.484445.d", 
              "name": [
                "Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health, Lyon, France"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Beugnet", 
            "givenName": "Frederic", 
            "id": "sg:person.01120575332.57", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01120575332.57"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411807.b", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Valenzano, Italy", 
                "Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Otranto", 
            "givenName": "Domenico", 
            "id": "sg:person.01240726757.72", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01240726757.72"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-011-6472-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049719584", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-6472-6"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-018-2820-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1103128675", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-2820-x"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-014-0479-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043240863", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-014-0479-5"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1756-3305-5-76", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016655104", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-5-76"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-017-2225-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1086118598", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-2225-2"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00436-021-07127-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1136590732", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-021-07127-6"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1756-3305-7-327", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014964628", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-7-327"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-015-0760-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038745840", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-015-0760-2"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1756-3305-7-283", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039161032", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-7-283"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-540-92874-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004655361", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-92874-4"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-020-04063-9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1126671531", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04063-9"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1756-3305-2-s1-s2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039241853", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-2-s1-s2"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2021-07-29", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2021-07-29", 
        "description": "BackgroundLeishmania infantum and Dirofilaria immitis are among the  most\u00a0important canine vector-borne pathogens (CVBPs) of zoonotic concern in Europe. In endemic areas for both of these CVBPs, the use of systemic ectoparasiticides, such as afoxolaner (NexGard\u00ae; Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health), may have the potential for controlling these infections. The aim of this study was to assess, for the first time, the insecticidal efficacy of NexGard\u00ae in decreasing the transmission of D. immitis and L. infantum to sheltered dogs living in a hyperendemic area, compared to the year before treatment, as well as its impact on the abundance of mosquito and sand fly populations.MethodsAll dogs (n\u2009=\u2009179) enrolled in the study were divided into two groups based on their infection status at enrollment: a non-infected group (G1) and an infected group (G2; infected with D. immitis, L. infantum or both). The study was conducted from March 2020 to March 2021. In order to exclude all animals infected with L. infantum and D. immitis before March 2020 (sampling time: T0), dogs in G1 were sampled in June (T1; i.e. T0\u2009+\u200990\u00a0days) and in October 2020 (T2; i.e. T0\u2009+\u2009210\u00a0days). From March to September 2020, all animals (G1 and G2) were weighed and treated monthly with NexGard\u00ae. Animals in G1 were tested for the  last\u00a0time in March 2021 (T3; i.e. T0\u2009+\u2009330 days) for assessing post-treatment incidence rate of infection and prevention efficacy.ResultsThe post-treatment incidence of D. immitis was 3.7% (1/27; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.2\u201318.1) and that of L. infantum was 3.6% (3/83; 95% CI: 1.0\u201310.1). Considering the annual incidence in 2019 and 2020, the protective efficacy against D. immitis and L. infantum infections was 94.2 and 64%, respectively. Of the female mosquitoes collected (n\u2009=\u2009146), only one pool out of 50 tested positive for D. immitis DNA, whereas out of 1252 female Sergentomya minuta specimens collected, only four tested positive for L. infantum (0.3%).ConclusionsAfoxolaner is efficacious in decreasing the rate of transmission of both D. immitis and L. infantum; however, comparison of the pre- and post-treatment period demonstrated that there was a significant difference only in the seasonal incidences of D. immitis infection. Preventive measures are recommended throughout the year in endemic areas to reduce the risk of pathogen transmission to animals and humans.Graphical abstract", 
        "genre": "article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-021-04883-3", 
        "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1399818", 
            "issn": [
              "1756-3305"
            ], 
            "name": "Parasites & Vectors", 
            "publisher": "Springer Nature", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "1", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "14"
          }
        ], 
        "keywords": [
          "L. infantum", 
          "endemic areas", 
          "canine vector-borne pathogens", 
          "D. immitis", 
          "Dirofilaria immitis", 
          "non-infected group", 
          "L. infantum infection", 
          "post-treatment incidence", 
          "D. immitis infection", 
          "post-treatment period", 
          "D. immitis DNA", 
          "annual incidence", 
          "infantum infection", 
          "protective efficacy", 
          "incidence rate", 
          "hyperendemic area", 
          "infected group", 
          "prevention efficacy", 
          "Leishmania infantum", 
          "infection status", 
          "sheltered dogs", 
          "infection", 
          "infantum", 
          "preventive measures", 
          "rate of transmission", 
          "dogs", 
          "incidence", 
          "efficacy", 
          "immitis", 
          "NexGard", 
          "afoxolaner", 
          "vector-borne pathogens", 
          "significant differences", 
          "zoonotic concern", 
          "female mosquitoes", 
          "animals", 
          "seasonal incidence", 
          "pathogen transmission", 
          "group", 
          "abundance of mosquitoes", 
          "mosquitoes", 
          "years", 
          "G1", 
          "study", 
          "treatment", 
          "enrollment", 
          "insecticidal efficacy", 
          "risk", 
          "transmission", 
          "ectoparasiticides", 
          "pre", 
          "rate", 
          "status", 
          "pathogens", 
          "humans", 
          "aim", 
          "population", 
          "period", 
          "differences", 
          "area", 
          "specimens", 
          "measures", 
          "time", 
          "first time", 
          "use", 
          "DNA", 
          "concern", 
          "pool", 
          "impact", 
          "potential", 
          "comparison", 
          "Europe", 
          "abundance", 
          "order", 
          "sand"
        ], 
        "name": "Efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard\u00ae) in preventing the transmission of Leishmania infantum and Dirofilaria immitis to sheltered dogs in a highly endemic area", 
        "pagination": "381", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1140047992"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1186/s13071-021-04883-3"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "pubmed_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "34325730"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-021-04883-3", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1140047992"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2022-12-01T06:42", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-springernature-scigraph/baseset/20221201/entities/gbq_results/article/article_886.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-021-04883-3"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s13071-021-04883-3'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s13071-021-04883-3'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s13071-021-04883-3'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s13071-021-04883-3'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    289 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      128 URIs      107 LITERALS      22 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-021-04883-3 schema:about N15ed785301994022a0e67d659d7cf653
    2 N275858ab38024a59b995565e8e41da5f
    3 N42504cb0572242b1809b5818be012431
    4 N462e619c9a2c4d46a9a40853e85199fb
    5 N490731b885c04603a1a4aa6556dd16f3
    6 N62274ee1277b4965913757cd18c44078
    7 N72b14cb5d71c4015850c5ed055eb4bf6
    8 N8a661fd86000478c83a082d666438bbd
    9 N9f6726cb721c4f178fd74b2b10aa2713
    10 Nadacfb44a73d4ade9a6be6c3ec466922
    11 Nb1e351e379f2441c863b1a20f5db5f6a
    12 Nbb3411e83ec94486adc89d7458b26cfe
    13 Nbf58cc84cb914da5a07e6c89d0c2b4de
    14 Nd0e58e4aea1343ddbcb6df323da244e3
    15 Nd0f68ba655f1473480214f7508c60c40
    16 anzsrc-for:11
    17 anzsrc-for:1108
    18 anzsrc-for:1117
    19 schema:author N48119fb2ef044a87b2926d71761438dc
    20 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-540-92874-4
    21 sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-011-6472-6
    22 sg:pub.10.1007/s00436-021-07127-6
    23 sg:pub.10.1186/1756-3305-2-s1-s2
    24 sg:pub.10.1186/1756-3305-5-76
    25 sg:pub.10.1186/1756-3305-7-283
    26 sg:pub.10.1186/1756-3305-7-327
    27 sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-014-0479-5
    28 sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-015-0760-2
    29 sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-017-2225-2
    30 sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-018-2820-x
    31 sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-020-04063-9
    32 schema:datePublished 2021-07-29
    33 schema:datePublishedReg 2021-07-29
    34 schema:description BackgroundLeishmania infantum and Dirofilaria immitis are among the most important canine vector-borne pathogens (CVBPs) of zoonotic concern in Europe. In endemic areas for both of these CVBPs, the use of systemic ectoparasiticides, such as afoxolaner (NexGard®; Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health), may have the potential for controlling these infections. The aim of this study was to assess, for the first time, the insecticidal efficacy of NexGard® in decreasing the transmission of D. immitis and L. infantum to sheltered dogs living in a hyperendemic area, compared to the year before treatment, as well as its impact on the abundance of mosquito and sand fly populations.MethodsAll dogs (n = 179) enrolled in the study were divided into two groups based on their infection status at enrollment: a non-infected group (G1) and an infected group (G2; infected with D. immitis, L. infantum or both). The study was conducted from March 2020 to March 2021. In order to exclude all animals infected with L. infantum and D. immitis before March 2020 (sampling time: T0), dogs in G1 were sampled in June (T1; i.e. T0 + 90 days) and in October 2020 (T2; i.e. T0 + 210 days). From March to September 2020, all animals (G1 and G2) were weighed and treated monthly with NexGard®. Animals in G1 were tested for the last time in March 2021 (T3; i.e. T0 + 330 days) for assessing post-treatment incidence rate of infection and prevention efficacy.ResultsThe post-treatment incidence of D. immitis was 3.7% (1/27; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.2–18.1) and that of L. infantum was 3.6% (3/83; 95% CI: 1.0–10.1). Considering the annual incidence in 2019 and 2020, the protective efficacy against D. immitis and L. infantum infections was 94.2 and 64%, respectively. Of the female mosquitoes collected (n = 146), only one pool out of 50 tested positive for D. immitis DNA, whereas out of 1252 female Sergentomya minuta specimens collected, only four tested positive for L. infantum (0.3%).ConclusionsAfoxolaner is efficacious in decreasing the rate of transmission of both D. immitis and L. infantum; however, comparison of the pre- and post-treatment period demonstrated that there was a significant difference only in the seasonal incidences of D. immitis infection. Preventive measures are recommended throughout the year in endemic areas to reduce the risk of pathogen transmission to animals and humans.Graphical abstract
    35 schema:genre article
    36 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
    37 schema:isPartOf N7d8d0155738b495ab441fbfec0b53ec4
    38 Nb06add3abdbd48e5a9733c2e5862b03c
    39 sg:journal.1399818
    40 schema:keywords D. immitis
    41 D. immitis DNA
    42 D. immitis infection
    43 DNA
    44 Dirofilaria immitis
    45 Europe
    46 G1
    47 L. infantum
    48 L. infantum infection
    49 Leishmania infantum
    50 NexGard
    51 abundance
    52 abundance of mosquitoes
    53 afoxolaner
    54 aim
    55 animals
    56 annual incidence
    57 area
    58 canine vector-borne pathogens
    59 comparison
    60 concern
    61 differences
    62 dogs
    63 ectoparasiticides
    64 efficacy
    65 endemic areas
    66 enrollment
    67 female mosquitoes
    68 first time
    69 group
    70 humans
    71 hyperendemic area
    72 immitis
    73 impact
    74 incidence
    75 incidence rate
    76 infantum
    77 infantum infection
    78 infected group
    79 infection
    80 infection status
    81 insecticidal efficacy
    82 measures
    83 mosquitoes
    84 non-infected group
    85 order
    86 pathogen transmission
    87 pathogens
    88 period
    89 pool
    90 population
    91 post-treatment incidence
    92 post-treatment period
    93 potential
    94 pre
    95 prevention efficacy
    96 preventive measures
    97 protective efficacy
    98 rate
    99 rate of transmission
    100 risk
    101 sand
    102 seasonal incidence
    103 sheltered dogs
    104 significant differences
    105 specimens
    106 status
    107 study
    108 time
    109 transmission
    110 treatment
    111 use
    112 vector-borne pathogens
    113 years
    114 zoonotic concern
    115 schema:name Efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard®) in preventing the transmission of Leishmania infantum and Dirofilaria immitis to sheltered dogs in a highly endemic area
    116 schema:pagination 381
    117 schema:productId N6cf66c928f2e4dba8810fb6d036acdc8
    118 Nbd880e865ef34a9da79e3d425d2493c9
    119 Nff375af808eb46be97ca0f02e8356a4c
    120 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1140047992
    121 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-021-04883-3
    122 schema:sdDatePublished 2022-12-01T06:42
    123 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    124 schema:sdPublisher Nca67a094c48042f6840113d1571b48dc
    125 schema:url https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-021-04883-3
    126 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    127 sgo:sdDataset articles
    128 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    129 N15ed785301994022a0e67d659d7cf653 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    130 schema:name Mosquito Vectors
    131 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    132 N275858ab38024a59b995565e8e41da5f schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    133 schema:name Naphthalenes
    134 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    135 N42504cb0572242b1809b5818be012431 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    136 schema:name Psychodidae
    137 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    138 N462e619c9a2c4d46a9a40853e85199fb schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    139 schema:name Endemic Diseases
    140 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    141 N48119fb2ef044a87b2926d71761438dc rdf:first sg:person.014254507271.73
    142 rdf:rest Nc9ff3ef7de214866974f5b1501b79e81
    143 N490731b885c04603a1a4aa6556dd16f3 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    144 schema:name Leishmaniasis, Visceral
    145 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    146 N62274ee1277b4965913757cd18c44078 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    147 schema:name Leishmania infantum
    148 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    149 N6cf66c928f2e4dba8810fb6d036acdc8 schema:name pubmed_id
    150 schema:value 34325730
    151 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    152 N72b14cb5d71c4015850c5ed055eb4bf6 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    153 schema:name Dirofilariasis
    154 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    155 N766d40d0e5054e8c867abc870d67e626 rdf:first sg:person.014277336761.08
    156 rdf:rest N9d1aff19d30b4b1cba07a8f5b393858c
    157 N7d8d0155738b495ab441fbfec0b53ec4 schema:volumeNumber 14
    158 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    159 N8a661fd86000478c83a082d666438bbd schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    160 schema:name Weather
    161 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    162 N9d1aff19d30b4b1cba07a8f5b393858c rdf:first sg:person.01253103573.37
    163 rdf:rest Nec4843713f884d668393f773b3cd739a
    164 N9f6726cb721c4f178fd74b2b10aa2713 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    165 schema:name Dogs
    166 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    167 Nadacfb44a73d4ade9a6be6c3ec466922 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    168 schema:name Animals
    169 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    170 Nb06add3abdbd48e5a9733c2e5862b03c schema:issueNumber 1
    171 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    172 Nb1e351e379f2441c863b1a20f5db5f6a schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    173 schema:name Female
    174 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    175 Nbb3411e83ec94486adc89d7458b26cfe schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    176 schema:name Dirofilaria immitis
    177 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    178 Nbd880e865ef34a9da79e3d425d2493c9 schema:name dimensions_id
    179 schema:value pub.1140047992
    180 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    181 Nbf58cc84cb914da5a07e6c89d0c2b4de schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    182 schema:name Isoxazoles
    183 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    184 Nc9ff3ef7de214866974f5b1501b79e81 rdf:first sg:person.0602551424.87
    185 rdf:rest N766d40d0e5054e8c867abc870d67e626
    186 Nca67a094c48042f6840113d1571b48dc schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    187 rdf:type schema:Organization
    188 Ncb942cb42523404f8824dffdaccad915 rdf:first sg:person.01240726757.72
    189 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    190 Nd0e58e4aea1343ddbcb6df323da244e3 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    191 schema:name Insect Vectors
    192 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    193 Nd0f68ba655f1473480214f7508c60c40 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    194 schema:name Dog Diseases
    195 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    196 Nec4843713f884d668393f773b3cd739a rdf:first sg:person.01120575332.57
    197 rdf:rest Ncb942cb42523404f8824dffdaccad915
    198 Nff375af808eb46be97ca0f02e8356a4c schema:name doi
    199 schema:value 10.1186/s13071-021-04883-3
    200 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    201 anzsrc-for:11 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    202 schema:name Medical and Health Sciences
    203 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    204 anzsrc-for:1108 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    205 schema:name Medical Microbiology
    206 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    207 anzsrc-for:1117 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    208 schema:name Public Health and Health Services
    209 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    210 sg:journal.1399818 schema:issn 1756-3305
    211 schema:name Parasites & Vectors
    212 schema:publisher Springer Nature
    213 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    214 sg:person.01120575332.57 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.484445.d
    215 schema:familyName Beugnet
    216 schema:givenName Frederic
    217 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01120575332.57
    218 rdf:type schema:Person
    219 sg:person.01240726757.72 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.411807.b
    220 schema:familyName Otranto
    221 schema:givenName Domenico
    222 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01240726757.72
    223 rdf:type schema:Person
    224 sg:person.01253103573.37 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.7644.1
    225 schema:familyName Zatelli
    226 schema:givenName Andrea
    227 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01253103573.37
    228 rdf:type schema:Person
    229 sg:person.014254507271.73 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.7644.1
    230 schema:familyName Panarese
    231 schema:givenName Rossella
    232 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014254507271.73
    233 rdf:type schema:Person
    234 sg:person.014277336761.08 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.7644.1
    235 schema:familyName Mendoza-Roldan
    236 schema:givenName Jairo Alfonso
    237 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014277336761.08
    238 rdf:type schema:Person
    239 sg:person.0602551424.87 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.7644.1
    240 schema:familyName Iatta
    241 schema:givenName Roberta
    242 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0602551424.87
    243 rdf:type schema:Person
    244 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-540-92874-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004655361
    245 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-92874-4
    246 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    247 sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-011-6472-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049719584
    248 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-6472-6
    249 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    250 sg:pub.10.1007/s00436-021-07127-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1136590732
    251 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-021-07127-6
    252 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    253 sg:pub.10.1186/1756-3305-2-s1-s2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039241853
    254 https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-2-s1-s2
    255 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    256 sg:pub.10.1186/1756-3305-5-76 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016655104
    257 https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-5-76
    258 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    259 sg:pub.10.1186/1756-3305-7-283 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039161032
    260 https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-7-283
    261 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    262 sg:pub.10.1186/1756-3305-7-327 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014964628
    263 https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-7-327
    264 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    265 sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-014-0479-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043240863
    266 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-014-0479-5
    267 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    268 sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-015-0760-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038745840
    269 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-015-0760-2
    270 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    271 sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-017-2225-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1086118598
    272 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-2225-2
    273 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    274 sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-018-2820-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1103128675
    275 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-2820-x
    276 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    277 sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-020-04063-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1126671531
    278 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04063-9
    279 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    280 grid-institutes:grid.411807.b schema:alternateName Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
    281 schema:name Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Valenzano, Italy
    282 Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
    283 rdf:type schema:Organization
    284 grid-institutes:grid.484445.d schema:alternateName Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health, Lyon, France
    285 schema:name Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health, Lyon, France
    286 rdf:type schema:Organization
    287 grid-institutes:grid.7644.1 schema:alternateName Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Valenzano, Italy
    288 schema:name Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Valenzano, Italy
    289 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...