Seropositivity to canine tick-borne pathogens in a population of sick dogs in Italy View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2021-06-02

AUTHORS

Jairo Alfonso Mendoza-Roldan, Giovanni Benelli, Marcos Antonio Bezerra-Santos, Viet-Linh Nguyen, Giuseppe Conte, Roberta Iatta, Tommaso Furlanello, Domenico Otranto

ABSTRACT

BackgroundCanine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) associated to ticks are among the most important health issues affecting dogs. In Italy, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia conorii and Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.) have been studied in both healthy canine populations and those clinically ill with suspected CVBDs. However, little information is currently available on the overall prevalence and distribution of these pathogens in the country. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and distribution of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in clinically suspect dogs from three Italian macro areas during a 15-year period (2006–2020).MethodsA large dataset (n = 21,992) of serological test results for selected TBPs in three macro areas in Italy was analysed using a Chi-square test to evaluate the associations between the categorical factors (i.e. macro area, region, year, sex and age) and a standard logistic regression model (significance set at P = 0.05). Serological data were presented as annual and cumulative prevalence, and distribution maps of cumulative positive cases for TBPs were generated.ResultsOf the tested serum samples, 86.9% originated from northern (43.9%) and central (43%) Italy. The majority of the tests was requested for the diagnosis of E. canis (47%; n = 10,334), followed by Rickettsia spp. (35.1%; n = 7725), B. burgdorferi (s.l.) (11.6%; n = 2560) and Anaplasma spp. (6.2%; n = 1373). The highest serological exposure was recorded for B. burgdorferi (s.l.) (83.5%), followed by Rickettsia spp. (64.9%), Anaplasma spp. (39.8%) and E. canis (28.7%). The highest number of cumulative cases of Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.) was recorded in samples from Tuscany, central Italy. Rickettsia spp. was more prevalent in the south and on the islands, particularly in dogs on Sicily older than 6 years, whereas Anaplasma spp. was more prevalent in the north and E. canis more prevalent in the south and on the islands.ConclusionsThe results of this study highlight the high seroprevalence and wide distribution of the four TBPs in dogs with clinically suspected CVBDs from the studied regions of Italy. The very high seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi (s.l.) exemplifies a limitation of this study, given the use of clinically suspect dogs and the possibility of cross-reactions when using serological tests. The present research provides updated and illustrative information on the seroprevalence and distribution of four key TBPs, and advocates for integrative control strategies for their prevention.Graphical Abstract More... »

PAGES

292

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s13071-021-04772-9

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-021-04772-9

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1138548682

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34078417


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31 schema:description BackgroundCanine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) associated to ticks are among the most important health issues affecting dogs. In Italy, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia conorii and Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.) have been studied in both healthy canine populations and those clinically ill with suspected CVBDs. However, little information is currently available on the overall prevalence and distribution of these pathogens in the country. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and distribution of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in clinically suspect dogs from three Italian macro areas during a 15-year period (2006–2020).MethodsA large dataset (n = 21,992) of serological test results for selected TBPs in three macro areas in Italy was analysed using a Chi-square test to evaluate the associations between the categorical factors (i.e. macro area, region, year, sex and age) and a standard logistic regression model (significance set at P = 0.05). Serological data were presented as annual and cumulative prevalence, and distribution maps of cumulative positive cases for TBPs were generated.ResultsOf the tested serum samples, 86.9% originated from northern (43.9%) and central (43%) Italy. The majority of the tests was requested for the diagnosis of E. canis (47%; n = 10,334), followed by Rickettsia spp. (35.1%; n = 7725), B. burgdorferi (s.l.) (11.6%; n = 2560) and Anaplasma spp. (6.2%; n = 1373). The highest serological exposure was recorded for B. burgdorferi (s.l.) (83.5%), followed by Rickettsia spp. (64.9%), Anaplasma spp. (39.8%) and E. canis (28.7%). The highest number of cumulative cases of Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.) was recorded in samples from Tuscany, central Italy. Rickettsia spp. was more prevalent in the south and on the islands, particularly in dogs on Sicily older than 6 years, whereas Anaplasma spp. was more prevalent in the north and E. canis more prevalent in the south and on the islands.ConclusionsThe results of this study highlight the high seroprevalence and wide distribution of the four TBPs in dogs with clinically suspected CVBDs from the studied regions of Italy. The very high seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi (s.l.) exemplifies a limitation of this study, given the use of clinically suspect dogs and the possibility of cross-reactions when using serological tests. The present research provides updated and illustrative information on the seroprevalence and distribution of four key TBPs, and advocates for integrative control strategies for their prevention.Graphical Abstract
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37 schema:keywords Anaplasma spp
38 B. burgdorferi
39 Borrelia burgdorferi
40 ConclusionsThe results
41 E. canis
42 Ehrlichia canis
43 Italy
44 ResultsOf
45 Rickettsia conorii
46 Rickettsia spp
47 Sicily
48 Tuscany
49 advocates
50 aim
51 area
52 association
53 burgdorferi
54 canine population
55 canis
56 cases
57 categorical factors
58 central Italy
59 chi-square test
60 conorii
61 control strategy
62 countries
63 cumulative cases
64 cumulative positive cases
65 cumulative prevalence
66 data
67 dataset
68 diagnosis
69 disease
70 distribution
71 distribution maps
72 dogs
73 exposure
74 factors
75 health issues
76 high seroprevalence
77 higher number
78 highlights
79 illustrative information
80 important health issue
81 information
82 integrative control strategy
83 islands
84 issues
85 large datasets
86 limitations
87 little information
88 logistic regression models
89 macro areas
90 majority
91 maps
92 model
93 north
94 number
95 overall prevalence
96 pathogens
97 period
98 population
99 positive cases
100 possibility
101 present research
102 prevalence
103 prevention
104 region
105 regression models
106 research
107 results
108 samples
109 serological data
110 serological exposure
111 serological test results
112 serological tests
113 seropositivity
114 seroprevalence
115 serum samples
116 sick dogs
117 south
118 spp
119 standard logistic regression model
120 strategies
121 studied regions
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124 suspect dogs
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127 tick-borne pathogens
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