Serum amyloid A levels and alpha 2 and gamma globulins on serum protein electrophoresis in cats exposed to and infected ... View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2021-04-21

AUTHORS

Giulia Savioli, Joy Archer, Emanuele Brianti, Giovanni Benelli, Manuela Schnyder, Roberta Iatta, Domenico Otranto, Cinzia Cantacessi

ABSTRACT

BackgroundDogs are the main reservoir hosts of Leishmania infantum; nevertheless, recent investigations indicate a likely role for cats in the epidemiology of Leishmania infection. Feline leishmaniosis (FeL) remains poorly characterised, partly due to the lack of suitable diagnostic tools. This study aimed to compare serum amyloid A (SAA) levels and serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) profiles (specifically, alpha 2 and gamma globulins) in cats naturally exposed to or infected by L. infantum from southern Italy versus those of healthy controls and versus cats with neoplastic or inflammatory conditions from non-endemic areas.MethodsSerum or plasma samples from four cohorts of cats were analysed for SAA levels and by SPE: (i) G1: healthy controls from Leishmania-non-endemic regions of Switzerland; (ii) G2: cats pre-diagnosed with neoplastic or inflammatory conditions available from the University of Cambridge sample archive; (iii) G3: L. infantum-seropositive, quantitative (q)PCR-negative cats from southern Italy; (iv) G4: L. infantum-seropositive and qPCR-positive cats from southern Italy. SAA data were assessed for normality and homoscedasticity using the Shapiro–Wilk and Levene’s tests, respectively; the Kruskall–Wallis test, followed by Dunn’s test with Bonferroni correction were subsequently used to compare SAA serum levels between groups. A weighted generalised linear model with a binomial distribution was used to assess statistically significant differences in the numbers of animals displaying elevated gamma globulins and increased alpha 2 globulins between groups.ResultsOverall, 68 samples were analysed (G1: n = 16, G2: n = 20, G3: n = 20, G4: n = 12). Cats suffering from neoplastic and inflammatory conditions (G2 ) showed significantly higher SAA levels than healthy controls (G1) (median values [interquartile range]: G1: 0.00 [0.00–0.00] mg/l versus G2: 0.85 [0.00–49.55] mg/l). G2, G3 and G4 cats showed higher percentages of individuals with increased alpha 2 globulins (percentages ± standard error: G1 = 20.0% ± 10.3, G2 = 80.0% ± 8.9, G3 = 70.0% ± 10.2, G4 = 75.0% ± 12.5) and gamma globulins (G1 = 0.0% ± 0, G2 = 65.0% ± 10.7, G3 = 50.0% ± 11.2, G4 = 58.3% ± 14.2) than healthy control cats (G1). For all three markers, no significant difference between cats within G2, G3 and G4 was recorded.ConclusionsThis study indicates that the proportions of animals with elevated levels of alpha 2 and gamma globulins are significantly higher in cats exposed to and infected with L. infantum. Levels of SAA and alpha 2 and gamma globulins may not be used to differentiate between L. infantum infection or exposure, and neoplastic and/or inflammatory conditions.Graphical Abstract More... »

PAGES

217

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s13071-021-04710-9

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-021-04710-9

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https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1137340015

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33883004


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75 gamma globulin
76 generalised linear model
77 globulin
78 group
79 healthy control cats
80 healthy controls
81 high percentage
82 higher SAA levels
83 homoscedasticity
84 host
85 individuals
86 infantum
87 infantum infection
88 infection
89 inflammatory conditions
90 investigation
91 lack
92 leishmaniosis
93 levels
94 levels of SAA
95 linear model
96 main reservoir hosts
97 markers
98 model
99 negative cats
100 non-endemic areas
101 normality
102 number
103 number of animals
104 percentage
105 plasma samples
106 profile
107 proportion
108 proportion of animals
109 protein electrophoresis
110 protein electrophoresis profiles
111 recent investigations
112 region
113 reservoir hosts
114 role
115 sample archives
116 samples
117 serum
118 serum levels
119 serum protein electrophoresis
120 serum protein electrophoresis profiles
121 significant differences
122 southern Italy
123 study
124 suitable diagnostic tool
125 test
126 tool
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