The influence of temperature and humidity on the flight activity of Culicoides imicola both under laboratory and field conditions View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2019-12

AUTHORS

Gert J. Venter, Solomon N. B. Boikanyo, Chantel J. de Beer

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Insight into the factors that regulate the circadian host-seeking flight activity of Culicoides vectors (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) will be of importance to assess the risk of transmission of Culicoides-borne pathogens. This study aimed to determine the impact of temperature and humidity on the flight activity of Culicoides imicola Kieffer, and other livestock associated Culicoides species, under both laboratory and field conditions. METHODS: Batches of 500 field-collected C. imicola females were acclimatized at a predetermined range of temperatures (10-29 °C) and relative humidity (34-85%). After acclimatization, these females, prompted by a light source, were allowed to escape through a transparent plastic funnel into a paper cup, where they were counted after an hour. Flight activity under field conditions was determined seasonally by hourly light trap collections done overnight at four sites near cattle. RESULTS: Experiments conducted at various test conditions in the laboratory indicated that flight activity started at 13 °C. Peak in activity was observed between 16 °C to 18 °C, and temperatures above 20 °C seemingly inhibit flight. Under field conditions, a peak in numbers collected was observed immediately after sunset. With mean nocturnal temperatures below 19 °C, more than 74% of the Culicoides were collected within two to three hours after sunset. With mean nocturnal temperature above 19 °C, the peak in numbers at sunset was sustained until after midnight, with somewhat higher numbers collected after midnight once temperatures dropped below 20 °C. No peak in numbers was observed at dawn. Although very low numbers were collected during the day, which partly may have been a result of the collecting method, Culicoides were present throughout periods of 24 hours. Humidity seemed to play a minor role in the regulation of flight activity. CONCLUSIONS: Abundance and species diversity results as obtained in this study indicated a high level of risk of virus transmission in the first hours following sunset. A strong relationship was found between host-seeking activity, and hence trap efficiency, and within limits, temperature. Light traps primarily measure flight activity and may as such underestimate adult abundance of C. imicola if deployed at temperatures outside thresholds of 16-20 °C. More... »

PAGES

4

Journal

TITLE

Filaria Journal

ISSUE

1

VOLUME

12

Author Affiliations

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s13071-018-3272-z

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-3272-z

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1111097153

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30606269


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50 schema:description BACKGROUND: Insight into the factors that regulate the circadian host-seeking flight activity of Culicoides vectors (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) will be of importance to assess the risk of transmission of Culicoides-borne pathogens. This study aimed to determine the impact of temperature and humidity on the flight activity of Culicoides imicola Kieffer, and other livestock associated Culicoides species, under both laboratory and field conditions. METHODS: Batches of 500 field-collected C. imicola females were acclimatized at a predetermined range of temperatures (10-29 °C) and relative humidity (34-85%). After acclimatization, these females, prompted by a light source, were allowed to escape through a transparent plastic funnel into a paper cup, where they were counted after an hour. Flight activity under field conditions was determined seasonally by hourly light trap collections done overnight at four sites near cattle. RESULTS: Experiments conducted at various test conditions in the laboratory indicated that flight activity started at 13 °C. Peak in activity was observed between 16 °C to 18 °C, and temperatures above 20 °C seemingly inhibit flight. Under field conditions, a peak in numbers collected was observed immediately after sunset. With mean nocturnal temperatures below 19 °C, more than 74% of the Culicoides were collected within two to three hours after sunset. With mean nocturnal temperature above 19 °C, the peak in numbers at sunset was sustained until after midnight, with somewhat higher numbers collected after midnight once temperatures dropped below 20 °C. No peak in numbers was observed at dawn. Although very low numbers were collected during the day, which partly may have been a result of the collecting method, Culicoides were present throughout periods of 24 hours. Humidity seemed to play a minor role in the regulation of flight activity. CONCLUSIONS: Abundance and species diversity results as obtained in this study indicated a high level of risk of virus transmission in the first hours following sunset. A strong relationship was found between host-seeking activity, and hence trap efficiency, and within limits, temperature. Light traps primarily measure flight activity and may as such underestimate adult abundance of C. imicola if deployed at temperatures outside thresholds of 16-20 °C.
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