Effect of environmental variables and kdr resistance genotype on survival probability and infection rates in Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2018-12

AUTHORS

Mojca Kristan, Tarekegn A. Abeku, Jo Lines

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Environmental factors, especially ambient temperature and relative humidity affect both mosquitoes and malaria parasites. The early part of sporogony is most sensitive and is affected by high temperatures and temperature fluctuation immediately following ingestion of an infectious blood meal. The aim of this study was to explore whether environmental variables such as temperature, together with the presence of the kdr insecticide resistance mutations, have an impact on survival probability and infection rates in wild Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) exposed and unexposed to a pyrethroid insecticide. METHODS: Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) were collected as larvae, reared to adults, and fed on blood samples from 42 Plasmodium falciparum-infected local patients at a health facility in mid-western Uganda, then exposed either to nets treated with sub-lethal doses of deltamethrin or to untreated nets. After seven days, surviving mosquitoes were dissected and their midguts examined for oocysts. Prevalence (proportion infected) and intensity of infection (number of oocysts per infected mosquito) were recorded for each group. Mosquito mortality was recorded daily. Temperature and humidity were recorded every 30 minutes throughout the experiments. RESULTS: Our findings indicate that apart from the effect of deltamethrin exposure, mean daily temperature during the incubation period, temperature range during the first 24 hours and on day 4 post-infectious feed had a highly significant effect on the risk of infection. Deltamethrin exposure still significantly impaired survival of kdr homozygous mosquitoes, while mean daily temperature and relative humidity during the incubation period independently affected mosquito mortality. Significant differences in survival of resistant genotypes were detected, with the lowest survival recorded in mosquitoes with heterozygote L1014S/L1014F genotype. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed that the early part of sporogony is most affected by temperature fluctuations, while environmental factors affect mosquito survival. The impact of insecticide resistance on malaria infection and vector survival needs to be assessed separately for mosquitoes with different resistance mechanisms to fully understand its implications for currently available vector control tools and malaria transmission. More... »

PAGES

560

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2016-09. Interactive cost of Plasmodium infection and insecticide resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae in SCIENTIFIC REPORTS
  • 2014-12. Temperature during larval development and adult maintenance influences the survival of Anopheles gambiae s.s. in FILARIA JOURNAL
  • 2013-09. Alteration in Bacillus thuringiensis toxicity by curing gut flora: novel approach for mosquito resistance management in PARASITOLOGY RESEARCH
  • 2013-12. The effect of larval nutritional deprivation on the life history and DDT resistance phenotype in laboratory strains of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in MALARIA JOURNAL
  • 2015-10. The effect of malaria control on Plasmodium falciparum in Africa between 2000 and 2015 in NATURE
  • 2011-12. Evidence for a useful life of more than three years for a polyester-based long-lasting insecticidal mosquito net in Western Uganda in MALARIA JOURNAL
  • 2016-12. Exposure to deltamethrin affects development of Plasmodium falciparum inside wild pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes in Uganda in FILARIA JOURNAL
  • 2018-12. Candidate-gene based GWAS identifies reproducible DNA markers for metabolic pyrethroid resistance from standing genetic variation in East African Anopheles gambiae in SCIENTIFIC REPORTS
  • 2018-12. Rethinking the extrinsic incubation period of malaria parasites in FILARIA JOURNAL
  • 2014-12. The effect of multiple blood-feeding on the longevity and insecticide resistant phenotype in the major malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in FILARIA JOURNAL
  • 2017-12. Insecticide susceptibility of Anopheles mosquitoes changes in response to variations in the larval environment in SCIENTIFIC REPORTS
  • 2015-12. A cohort study of the effectiveness of insecticide-treated bed nets to prevent malaria in an area of moderate pyrethroid resistance, Malawi in MALARIA JOURNAL
  • 2007-12. Detection of knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations in Anopheles gambiae: a comparison of two new high-throughput assays with existing methods in MALARIA JOURNAL
  • 2008-12. Costs and benefits of multiple resistance to insecticides for Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in BMC EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY
  • 2012-12. Rethinking vector immunology: the role of environmental temperature in shaping resistance in NATURE REVIEWS MICROBIOLOGY
  • 2014-12. Estimation of insecticide persistence, biological activity and mosquito resistance to PermaNetĀ® 2 long-lasting insecticidal nets over three to 32 months of use in Ethiopia in MALARIA JOURNAL
  • 2014-12. Environmental temperatures significantly change the impact of insecticides measured using WHOPES protocols in MALARIA JOURNAL
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s13071-018-3150-8

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-3150-8

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1107869685

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30367663


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1108", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Medical Microbiology", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/11", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Medical and Health Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8991.9", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Kristan", 
            "givenName": "Mojca", 
            "id": "sg:person.0766132613.25", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0766132613.25"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Malaria Consortium", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.475304.1", 
              "name": [
                "Malaria Consortium, London, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Abeku", 
            "givenName": "Tarekegn A.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01044153343.31", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01044153343.31"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8991.9", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Lines", 
            "givenName": "Jo", 
            "id": "sg:person.01245012566.44", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01245012566.44"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2015.11.010", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004444949"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1756-3305-7-390", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009202653", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-7-390"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0014-3820.2004.tb01579.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010900927"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-016-1384-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011729298", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-016-1384-x"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-4571.2011.00219.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011957661"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1200231109", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012032434"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1475-2875-10-299", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012288826", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-10-299"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2008.10.010", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012562099"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature15535", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013049291", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature15535"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2148-8-104", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013401326", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-8-104"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1061967", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014138864"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/emboj/21.7.1586", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017417757"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/srep29755", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018196551", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/srep29755"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1006422107", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018776774"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06432.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021457493"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001000", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024968611"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jip.2011.12.005", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025789686"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1475-2875-6-111", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028650172", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-6-111"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2915.1999.00198.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029438010"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/s0031182000077003", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031048808"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/s0031182000077003", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031048808"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001619", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032207309"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058322", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032468888"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s12936-015-0554-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034120986", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-015-0554-1"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s12936-015-0554-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034120986", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-015-0554-1"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.7554/elife.16090", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035306632"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nrmicro2900", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035523046", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro2900"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0014-3820.2003.tb01521.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036414921"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2013.2030", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036559350"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2012.0638", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037214712"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.micro.091208.073403", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038490177"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1897/08-291.1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038623657"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1475-2875-13-80", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041366569", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-13-80"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006108", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042011475"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006108", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042011475"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2009.09.004", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042130405"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1475-2875-13-350", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043124962", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-13-350"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-014-0489-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043166011", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-014-0489-3"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-014-0489-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043166011", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-014-0489-3"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/s003118200006323x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043431292"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/s003118200006323x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043431292"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00436-013-3507-z", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045541290", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-013-3507-z"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2008.04.009", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046543717"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0908530106", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048471157"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3024.1992.tb00021.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051203451"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1475-2875-12-44", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051432751", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-12-44"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1590/s1020-49892012000700001", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1068109516"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1645/ge-135r1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1068179539"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.2307/3276326", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070248333"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075707323", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076091555", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076793416", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.74.772", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077236714"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.1990.259.2.r191", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078465227"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079553165", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079684046", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079791402", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1080978837", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2305.161315", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1084429506"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41598-017-03918-z", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1086000795", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-03918-z"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/eva.12574", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092573288"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41598-018-21265-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1100901844", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-21265-5"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-018-2761-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1101504107", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-2761-4"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-018-2761-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1101504107", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-2761-4"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-018-2761-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1101504107", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-2761-4"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-018-2761-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1101504107", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-2761-4"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s1473-3099(18)30172-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1103190735"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s1473-3099(18)30172-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1103190735"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s1473-3099(18)30172-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1103190735"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s1473-3099(18)30172-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1103190735"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2018-12", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2018-12-01", 
        "description": "BACKGROUND: Environmental factors, especially ambient temperature and relative humidity affect both mosquitoes and malaria parasites. The early part of sporogony is most sensitive and is affected by high temperatures and temperature fluctuation immediately following ingestion of an infectious blood meal. The aim of this study was to explore whether environmental variables such as temperature, together with the presence of the kdr insecticide resistance mutations, have an impact on survival probability and infection rates in wild Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) exposed and unexposed to a pyrethroid insecticide.\nMETHODS: Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) were collected as larvae, reared to adults, and fed on blood samples from 42 Plasmodium falciparum-infected local patients at a health facility in mid-western Uganda, then exposed either to nets treated with sub-lethal doses of deltamethrin or to untreated nets. After seven days, surviving mosquitoes were dissected and their midguts examined for oocysts. Prevalence (proportion infected) and intensity of infection (number of oocysts per infected mosquito) were recorded for each group. Mosquito mortality was recorded daily. Temperature and humidity were recorded every 30 minutes throughout the experiments.\nRESULTS: Our findings indicate that apart from the effect of deltamethrin exposure, mean daily temperature during the incubation period, temperature range during the first 24 hours and on day 4 post-infectious feed had a highly significant effect on the risk of infection. Deltamethrin exposure still significantly impaired survival of kdr homozygous mosquitoes, while mean daily temperature and relative humidity during the incubation period independently affected mosquito mortality. Significant differences in survival of resistant genotypes were detected, with the lowest survival recorded in mosquitoes with heterozygote L1014S/L1014F genotype.\nCONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed that the early part of sporogony is most affected by temperature fluctuations, while environmental factors affect mosquito survival. The impact of insecticide resistance on malaria infection and vector survival needs to be assessed separately for mosquitoes with different resistance mechanisms to fully understand its implications for currently available vector control tools and malaria transmission.", 
        "genre": "research_article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-018-3150-8", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1039458", 
            "issn": [
              "1756-3305"
            ], 
            "name": "Filaria Journal", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "1", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "11"
          }
        ], 
        "name": "Effect of environmental variables and kdr resistance genotype on survival probability and infection rates in Anopheles gambiae (s.s.)", 
        "pagination": "560", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "f48035ed8c28318478f48d8458524b5a7258a8f8628c94b9b0e718860c164a6b"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "pubmed_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "30367663"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "101462774"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1186/s13071-018-3150-8"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1107869685"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-3150-8", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1107869685"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-10T21:48", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8687_00000575.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://link.springer.com/10.1186%2Fs13071-018-3150-8"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:Ā  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s13071-018-3150-8'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s13071-018-3150-8'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s13071-018-3150-8'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s13071-018-3150-8'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    272 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      88 URIs      21 LITERALS      9 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-018-3150-8 schema:about anzsrc-for:11
    2 anzsrc-for:1108
    3 schema:author N98b6ee3e04d247a085e2c0a73d6dbfd9
    4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/s00436-013-3507-z
    5 sg:pub.10.1038/nature15535
    6 sg:pub.10.1038/nrmicro2900
    7 sg:pub.10.1038/s41598-017-03918-z
    8 sg:pub.10.1038/s41598-018-21265-5
    9 sg:pub.10.1038/srep29755
    10 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2148-8-104
    11 sg:pub.10.1186/1475-2875-10-299
    12 sg:pub.10.1186/1475-2875-12-44
    13 sg:pub.10.1186/1475-2875-13-350
    14 sg:pub.10.1186/1475-2875-13-80
    15 sg:pub.10.1186/1475-2875-6-111
    16 sg:pub.10.1186/1756-3305-7-390
    17 sg:pub.10.1186/s12936-015-0554-1
    18 sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-014-0489-3
    19 sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-016-1384-x
    20 sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-018-2761-4
    21 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075707323
    22 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076091555
    23 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076793416
    24 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079553165
    25 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079684046
    26 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079791402
    27 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1080978837
    28 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2008.04.009
    29 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2008.10.010
    30 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jip.2011.12.005
    31 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2009.09.004
    32 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2015.11.010
    33 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1473-3099(18)30172-5
    34 https://doi.org/10.1017/s003118200006323x
    35 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0031182000077003
    36 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2915.1999.00198.x
    37 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0908530106
    38 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1006422107
    39 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1200231109
    40 https://doi.org/10.1093/emboj/21.7.1586
    41 https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2012.0638
    42 https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2013.2030
    43 https://doi.org/10.1111/eva.12574
    44 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0014-3820.2003.tb01521.x
    45 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0014-3820.2004.tb01579.x
    46 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3024.1992.tb00021.x
    47 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06432.x
    48 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-4571.2011.00219.x
    49 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1061967
    50 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.micro.091208.073403
    51 https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.1990.259.2.r191
    52 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001619
    53 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058322
    54 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001000
    55 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006108
    56 https://doi.org/10.1590/s1020-49892012000700001
    57 https://doi.org/10.1645/ge-135r1
    58 https://doi.org/10.1897/08-291.1
    59 https://doi.org/10.2307/3276326
    60 https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2305.161315
    61 https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.74.772
    62 https://doi.org/10.7554/elife.16090
    63 schema:datePublished 2018-12
    64 schema:datePublishedReg 2018-12-01
    65 schema:description BACKGROUND: Environmental factors, especially ambient temperature and relative humidity affect both mosquitoes and malaria parasites. The early part of sporogony is most sensitive and is affected by high temperatures and temperature fluctuation immediately following ingestion of an infectious blood meal. The aim of this study was to explore whether environmental variables such as temperature, together with the presence of the kdr insecticide resistance mutations, have an impact on survival probability and infection rates in wild Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) exposed and unexposed to a pyrethroid insecticide. METHODS: Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) were collected as larvae, reared to adults, and fed on blood samples from 42 Plasmodium falciparum-infected local patients at a health facility in mid-western Uganda, then exposed either to nets treated with sub-lethal doses of deltamethrin or to untreated nets. After seven days, surviving mosquitoes were dissected and their midguts examined for oocysts. Prevalence (proportion infected) and intensity of infection (number of oocysts per infected mosquito) were recorded for each group. Mosquito mortality was recorded daily. Temperature and humidity were recorded every 30 minutes throughout the experiments. RESULTS: Our findings indicate that apart from the effect of deltamethrin exposure, mean daily temperature during the incubation period, temperature range during the first 24 hours and on day 4 post-infectious feed had a highly significant effect on the risk of infection. Deltamethrin exposure still significantly impaired survival of kdr homozygous mosquitoes, while mean daily temperature and relative humidity during the incubation period independently affected mosquito mortality. Significant differences in survival of resistant genotypes were detected, with the lowest survival recorded in mosquitoes with heterozygote L1014S/L1014F genotype. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed that the early part of sporogony is most affected by temperature fluctuations, while environmental factors affect mosquito survival. The impact of insecticide resistance on malaria infection and vector survival needs to be assessed separately for mosquitoes with different resistance mechanisms to fully understand its implications for currently available vector control tools and malaria transmission.
    66 schema:genre research_article
    67 schema:inLanguage en
    68 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
    69 schema:isPartOf N3ba3f057650f4e70ab20be92da7597e5
    70 Nf9de0308e08d438c85a63cd9df9055f5
    71 sg:journal.1039458
    72 schema:name Effect of environmental variables and kdr resistance genotype on survival probability and infection rates in Anopheles gambiae (s.s.)
    73 schema:pagination 560
    74 schema:productId N43da9e757bed4689baf0c4d25c3a733a
    75 N5b24613d6dfb4e1bbc5756b10af64cb8
    76 N97e4b0752f3942d79a2036a4e307119b
    77 N9cdcf2edd9de481eb7109eb4d13a0329
    78 Nf42c92027ec242bfb676eda21827bfe6
    79 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1107869685
    80 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-3150-8
    81 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-10T21:48
    82 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    83 schema:sdPublisher Nb7543788e7ef4e4eaec56737a7d9e527
    84 schema:url https://link.springer.com/10.1186%2Fs13071-018-3150-8
    85 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    86 sgo:sdDataset articles
    87 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    88 N3ba3f057650f4e70ab20be92da7597e5 schema:issueNumber 1
    89 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    90 N43da9e757bed4689baf0c4d25c3a733a schema:name readcube_id
    91 schema:value f48035ed8c28318478f48d8458524b5a7258a8f8628c94b9b0e718860c164a6b
    92 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    93 N5769b25a38c6434b8778ed04719eb711 rdf:first sg:person.01044153343.31
    94 rdf:rest Nff5748a91a234fbb9d394714a9657e1d
    95 N5b24613d6dfb4e1bbc5756b10af64cb8 schema:name doi
    96 schema:value 10.1186/s13071-018-3150-8
    97 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    98 N97e4b0752f3942d79a2036a4e307119b schema:name dimensions_id
    99 schema:value pub.1107869685
    100 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    101 N98b6ee3e04d247a085e2c0a73d6dbfd9 rdf:first sg:person.0766132613.25
    102 rdf:rest N5769b25a38c6434b8778ed04719eb711
    103 N9cdcf2edd9de481eb7109eb4d13a0329 schema:name pubmed_id
    104 schema:value 30367663
    105 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    106 Nb7543788e7ef4e4eaec56737a7d9e527 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    107 rdf:type schema:Organization
    108 Nf42c92027ec242bfb676eda21827bfe6 schema:name nlm_unique_id
    109 schema:value 101462774
    110 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    111 Nf9de0308e08d438c85a63cd9df9055f5 schema:volumeNumber 11
    112 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    113 Nff5748a91a234fbb9d394714a9657e1d rdf:first sg:person.01245012566.44
    114 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    115 anzsrc-for:11 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    116 schema:name Medical and Health Sciences
    117 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    118 anzsrc-for:1108 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    119 schema:name Medical Microbiology
    120 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    121 sg:journal.1039458 schema:issn 1756-3305
    122 schema:name Filaria Journal
    123 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    124 sg:person.01044153343.31 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.475304.1
    125 schema:familyName Abeku
    126 schema:givenName Tarekegn A.
    127 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01044153343.31
    128 rdf:type schema:Person
    129 sg:person.01245012566.44 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8991.9
    130 schema:familyName Lines
    131 schema:givenName Jo
    132 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01245012566.44
    133 rdf:type schema:Person
    134 sg:person.0766132613.25 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8991.9
    135 schema:familyName Kristan
    136 schema:givenName Mojca
    137 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0766132613.25
    138 rdf:type schema:Person
    139 sg:pub.10.1007/s00436-013-3507-z schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045541290
    140 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-013-3507-z
    141 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    142 sg:pub.10.1038/nature15535 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013049291
    143 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature15535
    144 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    145 sg:pub.10.1038/nrmicro2900 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035523046
    146 https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro2900
    147 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    148 sg:pub.10.1038/s41598-017-03918-z schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1086000795
    149 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-03918-z
    150 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    151 sg:pub.10.1038/s41598-018-21265-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1100901844
    152 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-21265-5
    153 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    154 sg:pub.10.1038/srep29755 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018196551
    155 https://doi.org/10.1038/srep29755
    156 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    157 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2148-8-104 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013401326
    158 https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-8-104
    159 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    160 sg:pub.10.1186/1475-2875-10-299 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012288826
    161 https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-10-299
    162 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    163 sg:pub.10.1186/1475-2875-12-44 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051432751
    164 https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-12-44
    165 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    166 sg:pub.10.1186/1475-2875-13-350 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043124962
    167 https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-13-350
    168 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    169 sg:pub.10.1186/1475-2875-13-80 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041366569
    170 https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-13-80
    171 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    172 sg:pub.10.1186/1475-2875-6-111 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028650172
    173 https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-6-111
    174 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    175 sg:pub.10.1186/1756-3305-7-390 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009202653
    176 https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-7-390
    177 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    178 sg:pub.10.1186/s12936-015-0554-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034120986
    179 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-015-0554-1
    180 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    181 sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-014-0489-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043166011
    182 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-014-0489-3
    183 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    184 sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-016-1384-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011729298
    185 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-016-1384-x
    186 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    187 sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-018-2761-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1101504107
    188 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-2761-4
    189 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    190 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075707323 schema:CreativeWork
    191 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076091555 schema:CreativeWork
    192 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076793416 schema:CreativeWork
    193 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079553165 schema:CreativeWork
    194 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079684046 schema:CreativeWork
    195 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079791402 schema:CreativeWork
    196 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1080978837 schema:CreativeWork
    197 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2008.04.009 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046543717
    198 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    199 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2008.10.010 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012562099
    200 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    201 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jip.2011.12.005 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025789686
    202 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    203 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2009.09.004 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042130405
    204 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    205 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2015.11.010 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004444949
    206 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    207 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1473-3099(18)30172-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1103190735
    208 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    209 https://doi.org/10.1017/s003118200006323x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043431292
    210 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    211 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0031182000077003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031048808
    212 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    213 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2915.1999.00198.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029438010
    214 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    215 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0908530106 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048471157
    216 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    217 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1006422107 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018776774
    218 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    219 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1200231109 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012032434
    220 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    221 https://doi.org/10.1093/emboj/21.7.1586 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017417757
    222 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    223 https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2012.0638 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037214712
    224 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    225 https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2013.2030 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036559350
    226 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    227 https://doi.org/10.1111/eva.12574 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092573288
    228 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    229 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0014-3820.2003.tb01521.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036414921
    230 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    231 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0014-3820.2004.tb01579.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010900927
    232 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    233 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3024.1992.tb00021.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051203451
    234 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    235 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06432.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021457493
    236 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    237 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-4571.2011.00219.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011957661
    238 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    239 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1061967 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014138864
    240 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    241 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.micro.091208.073403 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038490177
    242 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    243 https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.1990.259.2.r191 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078465227
    244 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    245 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001619 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032207309
    246 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    247 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058322 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032468888
    248 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    249 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001000 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024968611
    250 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    251 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006108 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042011475
    252 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    253 https://doi.org/10.1590/s1020-49892012000700001 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1068109516
    254 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    255 https://doi.org/10.1645/ge-135r1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1068179539
    256 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    257 https://doi.org/10.1897/08-291.1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038623657
    258 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    259 https://doi.org/10.2307/3276326 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070248333
    260 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    261 https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2305.161315 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1084429506
    262 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    263 https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.74.772 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077236714
    264 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    265 https://doi.org/10.7554/elife.16090 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035306632
    266 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    267 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.475304.1 schema:alternateName Malaria Consortium
    268 schema:name Malaria Consortium, London, UK
    269 rdf:type schema:Organization
    270 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8991.9 schema:alternateName London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine
    271 schema:name Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    272 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...