Comparison of whole-genome bisulfite sequencing library preparation strategies identifies sources of biases affecting DNA methylation data View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2018-12

AUTHORS

Nelly Olova, Felix Krueger, Simon Andrews, David Oxley, Rebecca V. Berrens, Miguel R. Branco, Wolf Reik

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) is becoming an increasingly accessible technique, used widely for both fundamental and disease-oriented research. Library preparation methods benefit from a variety of available kits, polymerases and bisulfite conversion protocols. Although some steps in the procedure, such as PCR amplification, are known to introduce biases, a systematic evaluation of biases in WGBS strategies is missing. RESULTS: We perform a comparative analysis of several commonly used pre- and post-bisulfite WGBS library preparation protocols for their performance and quality of sequencing outputs. Our results show that bisulfite conversion per se is the main trigger of pronounced sequencing biases, and PCR amplification builds on these underlying artefacts. The majority of standard library preparation methods yield a significantly biased sequence output and overestimate global methylation. Importantly, both absolute and relative methylation levels at specific genomic regions vary substantially between methods, with clear implications for DNA methylation studies. CONCLUSIONS: We show that amplification-free library preparation is the least biased approach for WGBS. In protocols with amplification, the choice of bisulfite conversion protocol or polymerase can significantly minimize artefacts. To aid with the quality assessment of existing WGBS datasets, we have integrated a bias diagnostic tool in the Bismark package and offer several approaches for consideration during the preparation and analysis of WGBS datasets. More... »

PAGES

33

References to SciGraph publications

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s13059-018-1408-2

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-018-1408-2

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1101540995

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29544553


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0604", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Genetics", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/06", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Biological Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Artifacts", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "DNA Methylation", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Gene Library", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Polymerase Chain Reaction", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Sulfites", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Whole Genome Sequencing", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Edinburgh", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4305.2", 
          "name": [
            "Epigenetics Programme, The Babraham Institute, CB22 3AT, Cambridge, UK", 
            "Present address: MRC Human Genetics Unit, MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, EH4 2XU, Edinburgh, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Olova", 
        "givenName": "Nelly", 
        "id": "sg:person.01126563776.65", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01126563776.65"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Babraham Institute", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.418195.0", 
          "name": [
            "Bioinformatics Group, The Babraham Institute, CB22 3AT, Cambridge, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Krueger", 
        "givenName": "Felix", 
        "id": "sg:person.01300604526.38", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01300604526.38"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Babraham Institute", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.418195.0", 
          "name": [
            "Bioinformatics Group, The Babraham Institute, CB22 3AT, Cambridge, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Andrews", 
        "givenName": "Simon", 
        "id": "sg:person.01335744366.03", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01335744366.03"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Babraham Institute", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.418195.0", 
          "name": [
            "Mass Spectrometry Facility, The Babraham Institute, CB22 3AT, Cambridge, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Oxley", 
        "givenName": "David", 
        "id": "sg:person.01315373445.22", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01315373445.22"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Babraham Institute", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.418195.0", 
          "name": [
            "Epigenetics Programme, The Babraham Institute, CB22 3AT, Cambridge, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Berrens", 
        "givenName": "Rebecca V.", 
        "id": "sg:person.0730206026.74", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0730206026.74"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Queen Mary University of London", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4868.2", 
          "name": [
            "Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, E1 2AT, London, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Branco", 
        "givenName": "Miguel R.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01201145045.88", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01201145045.88"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Cambridge", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0", 
          "name": [
            "Epigenetics Programme, The Babraham Institute, CB22 3AT, Cambridge, UK", 
            "Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, CB10 1SA, Hinxton, UK", 
            "Centre for Trophoblast Research, University of Cambridge, CB2 3EG, Cambridge, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Reik", 
        "givenName": "Wolf", 
        "id": "sg:person.01003236610.53", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01003236610.53"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/gb-2011-12-2-r18", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000268052", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/gb-2011-12-2-r18"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.2183/pjab.80.189", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003463355"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.2183/pjab.80.189", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003463355"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2013.03.035", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005302017"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2443.2006.00984.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005500322"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001134", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006599423"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.89.5.1827", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007596846"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature07107", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008244927", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature07107"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkv717", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008644668"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/dnares/11.6.409", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011484165"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2008.04.043", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011546580"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.101907.109", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012488301"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1006/abio.1995.1204", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013336882"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature06745", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015143631", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature06745"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.3035", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015213431", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.3035"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.3035", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015213431", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.3035"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0152322", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017162922"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0152322", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017162922"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.162412.113", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017737228"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkt1306", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018473850"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1519288112", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019438453"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkn691", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019684673"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2008.02.026", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020052759"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/25.21.4422", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020518862"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2008.03.029", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020929996"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1515937112", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022002090"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1515937112", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022002090"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/29.13.e65", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022346000"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btr167", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022921387"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gku1177", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022955391"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2007.01.040", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022963858"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2011.12.035", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023344056"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.1311", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023653905", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.1311"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gku1263", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023846866"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature20095", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024264793", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature20095"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0093933", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024556831"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gks454", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024902980"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.25990", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025735126"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature10716", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026180143", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10716"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004868", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026607107"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2015.02.001", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026867132"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2013.06.004", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028153106"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkn294", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028765445"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nbt.1682", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031224351", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt.1682"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nbt.1682", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031224351", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt.1682"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002750", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031382118"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/nass/nrl034", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031821614"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003439", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032234436"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.f.369", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032583290", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.f.369"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nbt.1681", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032730037", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt.1681"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.1814", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032915484", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.1814"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2014.00341", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033236114"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/gb-2013-14-5-r51", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034665395", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/gb-2013-14-5-r51"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002440", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041474405"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2164-15-1119", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042522727", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-15-1119"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1306723110", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042649796"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature10008", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045173380", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10008"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s1046-2023(02)00060-9", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045695902"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s1046-2023(02)00060-9", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045695902"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2012.11.001", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046419846"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1016071107", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047051560"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s12864-016-3392-9", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047718855", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/s12864-016-3392-9"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s12864-016-3392-9", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047718855", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/s12864-016-3392-9"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1006/abio.1998.2833", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047781556"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2014.11.034", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050322034"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2014.11.034", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050322034"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2164-13-1", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051998628", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-13-1"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2012.07.042", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052672108"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/ac980067t", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055075181"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/ac980067t", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055075181"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkw1110", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059932068"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.2144/000113809", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1069096399"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.4161/epi.5.1.10560", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1072302968"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2017.01.008", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083402402"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s13148-017-0328-4", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1084612598", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/s13148-017-0328-4"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s13148-017-0328-4", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1084612598", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/s13148-017-0328-4"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2018-12", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2018-12-01", 
    "description": "BACKGROUND: Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) is becoming an increasingly accessible technique, used widely for both fundamental and disease-oriented research. Library preparation methods benefit from a variety of available kits, polymerases and bisulfite conversion protocols. Although some steps in the procedure, such as PCR amplification, are known to introduce biases, a systematic evaluation of biases in WGBS strategies is missing.\nRESULTS: We perform a comparative analysis of several commonly used pre- and post-bisulfite WGBS library preparation protocols for their performance and quality of sequencing outputs. Our results show that bisulfite conversion per se is the main trigger of pronounced sequencing biases, and PCR amplification builds on these underlying artefacts. The majority of standard library preparation methods yield a significantly biased sequence output and overestimate global methylation. Importantly, both absolute and relative methylation levels at specific genomic regions vary substantially between methods, with clear implications for DNA methylation studies.\nCONCLUSIONS: We show that amplification-free library preparation is the least biased approach for WGBS. In protocols with amplification, the choice of bisulfite conversion protocol or polymerase can significantly minimize artefacts. To aid with the quality assessment of existing WGBS datasets, we have integrated a bias diagnostic tool in the Bismark package and offer several approaches for consideration during the preparation and analysis of WGBS datasets.", 
    "genre": "research_article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s13059-018-1408-2", 
    "inLanguage": [
      "en"
    ], 
    "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
    "isFundedItemOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.2776185", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.3637479", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.3782307", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.3788057", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.3637515", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }
    ], 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1023439", 
        "issn": [
          "1474-760X", 
          "1465-6906"
        ], 
        "name": "Genome Biology", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "1", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "19"
      }
    ], 
    "name": "Comparison of whole-genome bisulfite sequencing library preparation strategies identifies sources of biases affecting DNA methylation data", 
    "pagination": "33", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "readcube_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "56026d7c6e4ecb36475c8bf762a8dd05b321135d74d96703b227d924f9929def"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "29544553"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "100960660"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1186/s13059-018-1408-2"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1101540995"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1186/s13059-018-1408-2", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1101540995"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T11:55", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000359_0000000359/records_29207_00000003.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "https://link.springer.com/10.1186%2Fs13059-018-1408-2"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s13059-018-1408-2'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s13059-018-1408-2'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s13059-018-1408-2'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s13059-018-1408-2'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

374 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      101 URIs      27 LITERALS      15 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1186/s13059-018-1408-2 schema:about N015f4362c663449599534bb38d138fa8
2 N05ef25fdfee9411697a9d7cf55617cb4
3 N78ed524ae3b646bcb848e1f70f9ebd65
4 Na006ccc338674f67bd1e78e3e7c1f67f
5 Nd0ea5df43bcf4201bc00c0b91a6e27df
6 Ndc80329d4b004be2b2e245d22b1306bf
7 anzsrc-for:06
8 anzsrc-for:0604
9 schema:author N68a9ed6e9f714c8b884c6d43eb715c9d
10 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1038/nature06745
11 sg:pub.10.1038/nature07107
12 sg:pub.10.1038/nature10008
13 sg:pub.10.1038/nature10716
14 sg:pub.10.1038/nature20095
15 sg:pub.10.1038/nbt.1681
16 sg:pub.10.1038/nbt.1682
17 sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.1311
18 sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.1814
19 sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.3035
20 sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.f.369
21 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2164-13-1
22 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2164-15-1119
23 sg:pub.10.1186/gb-2011-12-2-r18
24 sg:pub.10.1186/gb-2013-14-5-r51
25 sg:pub.10.1186/s12864-016-3392-9
26 sg:pub.10.1186/s13148-017-0328-4
27 https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.25990
28 https://doi.org/10.1006/abio.1995.1204
29 https://doi.org/10.1006/abio.1998.2833
30 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2008.02.026
31 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2007.01.040
32 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2008.03.029
33 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2008.04.043
34 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2011.12.035
35 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2013.03.035
36 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2014.11.034
37 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2015.02.001
38 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2017.01.008
39 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2012.07.042
40 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2012.11.001
41 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2013.06.004
42 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1046-2023(02)00060-9
43 https://doi.org/10.1021/ac980067t
44 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1016071107
45 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1306723110
46 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1515937112
47 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1519288112
48 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.89.5.1827
49 https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btr167
50 https://doi.org/10.1093/dnares/11.6.409
51 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/25.21.4422
52 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/29.13.e65
53 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkn294
54 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkn691
55 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gks454
56 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkt1306
57 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gku1177
58 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gku1263
59 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkv717
60 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkw1110
61 https://doi.org/10.1093/nass/nrl034
62 https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.101907.109
63 https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.162412.113
64 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2443.2006.00984.x
65 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001134
66 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002440
67 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002750
68 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003439
69 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004868
70 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0093933
71 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0152322
72 https://doi.org/10.2144/000113809
73 https://doi.org/10.2183/pjab.80.189
74 https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2014.00341
75 https://doi.org/10.4161/epi.5.1.10560
76 schema:datePublished 2018-12
77 schema:datePublishedReg 2018-12-01
78 schema:description BACKGROUND: Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) is becoming an increasingly accessible technique, used widely for both fundamental and disease-oriented research. Library preparation methods benefit from a variety of available kits, polymerases and bisulfite conversion protocols. Although some steps in the procedure, such as PCR amplification, are known to introduce biases, a systematic evaluation of biases in WGBS strategies is missing. RESULTS: We perform a comparative analysis of several commonly used pre- and post-bisulfite WGBS library preparation protocols for their performance and quality of sequencing outputs. Our results show that bisulfite conversion per se is the main trigger of pronounced sequencing biases, and PCR amplification builds on these underlying artefacts. The majority of standard library preparation methods yield a significantly biased sequence output and overestimate global methylation. Importantly, both absolute and relative methylation levels at specific genomic regions vary substantially between methods, with clear implications for DNA methylation studies. CONCLUSIONS: We show that amplification-free library preparation is the least biased approach for WGBS. In protocols with amplification, the choice of bisulfite conversion protocol or polymerase can significantly minimize artefacts. To aid with the quality assessment of existing WGBS datasets, we have integrated a bias diagnostic tool in the Bismark package and offer several approaches for consideration during the preparation and analysis of WGBS datasets.
79 schema:genre research_article
80 schema:inLanguage en
81 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
82 schema:isPartOf N0cb78ee440a945609511ecc97c54c918
83 Nf08c88da715e412f899d090f66187dea
84 sg:journal.1023439
85 schema:name Comparison of whole-genome bisulfite sequencing library preparation strategies identifies sources of biases affecting DNA methylation data
86 schema:pagination 33
87 schema:productId N13481a496670463baa1328deb5e86893
88 N6adadcef7a6a4060904fa0276ce51670
89 N84617ff8b144467887dc064a641a68de
90 N8d679ff0c7354a4898da594b5c094c09
91 Neb207c9293204972ac1f3087a8d34dc8
92 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1101540995
93 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13059-018-1408-2
94 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T11:55
95 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
96 schema:sdPublisher N9d2d1d2baf0b4f2abbd7aba8a6626c47
97 schema:url https://link.springer.com/10.1186%2Fs13059-018-1408-2
98 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
99 sgo:sdDataset articles
100 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
101 N015f4362c663449599534bb38d138fa8 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
102 schema:name Whole Genome Sequencing
103 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
104 N05ef25fdfee9411697a9d7cf55617cb4 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
105 schema:name Sulfites
106 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
107 N0cb78ee440a945609511ecc97c54c918 schema:issueNumber 1
108 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
109 N13481a496670463baa1328deb5e86893 schema:name pubmed_id
110 schema:value 29544553
111 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
112 N1770beb936f741e09ec58df462f667ec rdf:first sg:person.01335744366.03
113 rdf:rest N81983ef937a54c519a4d5c867db8f16c
114 N299faba0d3104a6b8f3688affc82a56b rdf:first sg:person.0730206026.74
115 rdf:rest N4265f26508d140d4a51dbba9fd56be36
116 N4265f26508d140d4a51dbba9fd56be36 rdf:first sg:person.01201145045.88
117 rdf:rest N4921f85db43946cd9501bf4397ffdc71
118 N4921f85db43946cd9501bf4397ffdc71 rdf:first sg:person.01003236610.53
119 rdf:rest rdf:nil
120 N68a9ed6e9f714c8b884c6d43eb715c9d rdf:first sg:person.01126563776.65
121 rdf:rest Ncbaa710ad8684f40bfb5fce5d124e03a
122 N6adadcef7a6a4060904fa0276ce51670 schema:name readcube_id
123 schema:value 56026d7c6e4ecb36475c8bf762a8dd05b321135d74d96703b227d924f9929def
124 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
125 N78ed524ae3b646bcb848e1f70f9ebd65 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
126 schema:name Gene Library
127 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
128 N81983ef937a54c519a4d5c867db8f16c rdf:first sg:person.01315373445.22
129 rdf:rest N299faba0d3104a6b8f3688affc82a56b
130 N84617ff8b144467887dc064a641a68de schema:name nlm_unique_id
131 schema:value 100960660
132 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
133 N8d679ff0c7354a4898da594b5c094c09 schema:name dimensions_id
134 schema:value pub.1101540995
135 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
136 N9d2d1d2baf0b4f2abbd7aba8a6626c47 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
137 rdf:type schema:Organization
138 Na006ccc338674f67bd1e78e3e7c1f67f schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
139 schema:name Artifacts
140 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
141 Ncbaa710ad8684f40bfb5fce5d124e03a rdf:first sg:person.01300604526.38
142 rdf:rest N1770beb936f741e09ec58df462f667ec
143 Nd0ea5df43bcf4201bc00c0b91a6e27df schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
144 schema:name Polymerase Chain Reaction
145 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
146 Ndc80329d4b004be2b2e245d22b1306bf schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
147 schema:name DNA Methylation
148 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
149 Neb207c9293204972ac1f3087a8d34dc8 schema:name doi
150 schema:value 10.1186/s13059-018-1408-2
151 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
152 Nf08c88da715e412f899d090f66187dea schema:volumeNumber 19
153 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
154 anzsrc-for:06 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
155 schema:name Biological Sciences
156 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
157 anzsrc-for:0604 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
158 schema:name Genetics
159 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
160 sg:grant.2776185 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1186/s13059-018-1408-2
161 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
162 sg:grant.3637479 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1186/s13059-018-1408-2
163 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
164 sg:grant.3637515 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1186/s13059-018-1408-2
165 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
166 sg:grant.3782307 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1186/s13059-018-1408-2
167 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
168 sg:grant.3788057 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1186/s13059-018-1408-2
169 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
170 sg:journal.1023439 schema:issn 1465-6906
171 1474-760X
172 schema:name Genome Biology
173 rdf:type schema:Periodical
174 sg:person.01003236610.53 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0
175 schema:familyName Reik
176 schema:givenName Wolf
177 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01003236610.53
178 rdf:type schema:Person
179 sg:person.01126563776.65 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4305.2
180 schema:familyName Olova
181 schema:givenName Nelly
182 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01126563776.65
183 rdf:type schema:Person
184 sg:person.01201145045.88 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4868.2
185 schema:familyName Branco
186 schema:givenName Miguel R.
187 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01201145045.88
188 rdf:type schema:Person
189 sg:person.01300604526.38 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.418195.0
190 schema:familyName Krueger
191 schema:givenName Felix
192 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01300604526.38
193 rdf:type schema:Person
194 sg:person.01315373445.22 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.418195.0
195 schema:familyName Oxley
196 schema:givenName David
197 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01315373445.22
198 rdf:type schema:Person
199 sg:person.01335744366.03 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.418195.0
200 schema:familyName Andrews
201 schema:givenName Simon
202 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01335744366.03
203 rdf:type schema:Person
204 sg:person.0730206026.74 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.418195.0
205 schema:familyName Berrens
206 schema:givenName Rebecca V.
207 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0730206026.74
208 rdf:type schema:Person
209 sg:pub.10.1038/nature06745 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015143631
210 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature06745
211 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
212 sg:pub.10.1038/nature07107 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008244927
213 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature07107
214 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
215 sg:pub.10.1038/nature10008 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045173380
216 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10008
217 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
218 sg:pub.10.1038/nature10716 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026180143
219 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10716
220 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
221 sg:pub.10.1038/nature20095 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024264793
222 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature20095
223 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
224 sg:pub.10.1038/nbt.1681 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032730037
225 https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt.1681
226 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
227 sg:pub.10.1038/nbt.1682 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031224351
228 https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt.1682
229 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
230 sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.1311 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023653905
231 https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.1311
232 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
233 sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.1814 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032915484
234 https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.1814
235 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
236 sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.3035 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015213431
237 https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.3035
238 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
239 sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.f.369 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032583290
240 https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.f.369
241 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
242 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2164-13-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051998628
243 https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-13-1
244 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
245 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2164-15-1119 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042522727
246 https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-15-1119
247 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
248 sg:pub.10.1186/gb-2011-12-2-r18 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000268052
249 https://doi.org/10.1186/gb-2011-12-2-r18
250 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
251 sg:pub.10.1186/gb-2013-14-5-r51 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034665395
252 https://doi.org/10.1186/gb-2013-14-5-r51
253 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
254 sg:pub.10.1186/s12864-016-3392-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047718855
255 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12864-016-3392-9
256 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
257 sg:pub.10.1186/s13148-017-0328-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1084612598
258 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13148-017-0328-4
259 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
260 https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.25990 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025735126
261 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
262 https://doi.org/10.1006/abio.1995.1204 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013336882
263 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
264 https://doi.org/10.1006/abio.1998.2833 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047781556
265 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
266 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2008.02.026 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020052759
267 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
268 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2007.01.040 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022963858
269 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
270 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2008.03.029 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020929996
271 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
272 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2008.04.043 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011546580
273 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
274 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2011.12.035 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023344056
275 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
276 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2013.03.035 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005302017
277 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
278 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2014.11.034 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050322034
279 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
280 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2015.02.001 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026867132
281 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
282 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2017.01.008 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083402402
283 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
284 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2012.07.042 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052672108
285 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
286 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2012.11.001 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046419846
287 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
288 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2013.06.004 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028153106
289 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
290 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1046-2023(02)00060-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045695902
291 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
292 https://doi.org/10.1021/ac980067t schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055075181
293 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
294 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1016071107 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047051560
295 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
296 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1306723110 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042649796
297 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
298 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1515937112 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022002090
299 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
300 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1519288112 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019438453
301 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
302 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.89.5.1827 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007596846
303 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
304 https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btr167 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022921387
305 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
306 https://doi.org/10.1093/dnares/11.6.409 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011484165
307 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
308 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/25.21.4422 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020518862
309 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
310 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/29.13.e65 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022346000
311 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
312 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkn294 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028765445
313 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
314 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkn691 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019684673
315 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
316 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gks454 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024902980
317 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
318 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkt1306 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018473850
319 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
320 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gku1177 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022955391
321 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
322 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gku1263 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023846866
323 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
324 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkv717 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008644668
325 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
326 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkw1110 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059932068
327 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
328 https://doi.org/10.1093/nass/nrl034 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031821614
329 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
330 https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.101907.109 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012488301
331 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
332 https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.162412.113 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017737228
333 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
334 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2443.2006.00984.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005500322
335 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
336 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001134 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006599423
337 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
338 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002440 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041474405
339 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
340 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002750 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031382118
341 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
342 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003439 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032234436
343 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
344 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004868 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026607107
345 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
346 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0093933 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024556831
347 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
348 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0152322 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017162922
349 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
350 https://doi.org/10.2144/000113809 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1069096399
351 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
352 https://doi.org/10.2183/pjab.80.189 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003463355
353 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
354 https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2014.00341 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033236114
355 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
356 https://doi.org/10.4161/epi.5.1.10560 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1072302968
357 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
358 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.418195.0 schema:alternateName Babraham Institute
359 schema:name Bioinformatics Group, The Babraham Institute, CB22 3AT, Cambridge, UK
360 Epigenetics Programme, The Babraham Institute, CB22 3AT, Cambridge, UK
361 Mass Spectrometry Facility, The Babraham Institute, CB22 3AT, Cambridge, UK
362 rdf:type schema:Organization
363 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4305.2 schema:alternateName University of Edinburgh
364 schema:name Epigenetics Programme, The Babraham Institute, CB22 3AT, Cambridge, UK
365 Present address: MRC Human Genetics Unit, MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, EH4 2XU, Edinburgh, UK
366 rdf:type schema:Organization
367 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4868.2 schema:alternateName Queen Mary University of London
368 schema:name Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, E1 2AT, London, UK
369 rdf:type schema:Organization
370 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0 schema:alternateName University of Cambridge
371 schema:name Centre for Trophoblast Research, University of Cambridge, CB2 3EG, Cambridge, UK
372 Epigenetics Programme, The Babraham Institute, CB22 3AT, Cambridge, UK
373 Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, CB10 1SA, Hinxton, UK
374 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...