Context-dependent roles of MDMX (MDM4) and MDM2 in breast cancer proliferation and circulating tumor cells View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2019-12

AUTHORS

Chong Gao, Gu Xiao, Alessandra Piersigilli, Jiangtao Gou, Olorunseun Ogunwobi, Jill Bargonetti

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Many human breast cancers overexpress the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 and its homolog MDMX. Expression of MDM2 and MDMX occurs in estrogen receptor α-positive (ERα+) breast cancer and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). There are p53-independent influences of MDM2 and MDMX, and 80% of TNBC express mutant p53 (mtp53). MDM2 drives TNBC circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in mice, but the context-dependent influences of MDM2 and MDMX on different subtypes of breast cancers expressing mtp53 have not been determined. METHODS: To assess the context-dependent roles, we carried out MDM2 and MDMX knockdown in orthotopic tumors of TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells expressing mtp53 R280K and MDM2 knockdown in ERα+ T47D cells expressing mtp53 L194F. The corresponding cell proliferation was scored in vitro by growth curves and in vivo by orthotopic tumor volumes. Cell migration was assessed in vitro by wound-healing assays and cell intravasation in vivo by sorting GFP-positive CTCs by flow cytometry. The metastasis gene targets were determined by an RT-PCR array card screen and verified by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Knocking down MDMX or MDM2 in MDA-MB-231 cells reduced cell migration and CTC detection, but only MDMX knockdown reduced tumor volumes at early time points. This is the first report of MDMX overexpression in TNBC enhancing the CTC phenotype with correlated upregulation of CXCR4. Experiments were carried out to compare MDM2-knockdown outcomes in nonmetastatic ERα+ T47D cells. The knockdown of MDM2 in ERα+ T47D orthotopic tumors decreased primary tumor volumes, supporting our previous finding that estrogen-activated MDM2 increases cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report showing that the expression of MDM2 in ERα+ breast cancer and TNBC can result in different tumor-promoting outcomes. Both MDMX and MDM2 overexpression in TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells enhanced the CTC phenotype. These data indicate that both MDM2 and MDMX can promote TNBC metastasis and that it is important to consider the context-dependent roles of MDM2 family members in different subtypes of breast cancer. More... »

PAGES

5

References to SciGraph publications

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s13058-018-1094-8

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13058-018-1094-8

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1111401954

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30642351


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