Malnutrition, morbidity and infection in the informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya: an epidemiological study View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2019-12

AUTHORS

Maria Vittoria De Vita, Carlo Scolfaro, Bruna Santini, Antonella Lezo, Federico Gobbi, Dora Buonfrate, Elizabeth W. Kimani-Murage, Teresiah Macharia, Milka Wanjohi, Jacopo Mattia Rovarini, Gianfranco Morino

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition constitutes one of the major public health challenges throughout the developing world. Urban poverty and malnutrition have been on the rise, with an increased rate of morbidity. We herein explore the relationship between infections and nutritional status and the related association with hygienic conditions as risk of infection in children residing in the slums of Nairobi. METHODS: Case-control study based on a secondary analysis of quantitative data collected from a cluster randomized trial carried out in two slums of Nairobi. The following information about resident children were selected: babies' anthropometric measurements, related life conditions, data on infant-feeding practices, food security, hygiene, immunization coverage and morbidity were collected and updated with structured questionnaires until 12 months of life. Prevalence of malnutrition was calculated, then both bivariate and multivariate analysis were used to explore the relationship between malnutrition and its determinants. RESULTS: The study involved a total of 1119 babies registered at birth (51.28% male and 48.03% female infants). Overall the prevalence of malnutrition was high, with 26.3% of the children being stunted, 6.3% wasted and 13.16% underweight. Prevalence of wasting was higher in the first months of life, while in older children more case of stunting and underweight were captured. Wasted infants were significantly associated with common childhood illnesses: with cough and rapid breathing as well as with diarrhea (p-value< 0.05). Stunting was associated with hygienic conditions (p-value< 0.05 in households that did not perform any water treatment and for children that had a toilet within the house compound), immunization program and low-birth-weight. Moreover, regression analysis showed that significant determinants of stunting were sex and feeding practices. Underweight was significantly associated with socio-demographic factors. CONCLUSIONS: In the specific environment where the study was conducted acute malnutrition is correlated with acute infections, while chronic malnutrition is more influenced by WASH conditions. Therefore, our findings suggest that one cannot separate infection and its risk factors as determinants of the whole malnutrition burden. More... »

PAGES

12

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s13052-019-0607-0

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13052-019-0607-0

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1111399807

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30642368


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34 schema:description BACKGROUND: Malnutrition constitutes one of the major public health challenges throughout the developing world. Urban poverty and malnutrition have been on the rise, with an increased rate of morbidity. We herein explore the relationship between infections and nutritional status and the related association with hygienic conditions as risk of infection in children residing in the slums of Nairobi. METHODS: Case-control study based on a secondary analysis of quantitative data collected from a cluster randomized trial carried out in two slums of Nairobi. The following information about resident children were selected: babies' anthropometric measurements, related life conditions, data on infant-feeding practices, food security, hygiene, immunization coverage and morbidity were collected and updated with structured questionnaires until 12 months of life. Prevalence of malnutrition was calculated, then both bivariate and multivariate analysis were used to explore the relationship between malnutrition and its determinants. RESULTS: The study involved a total of 1119 babies registered at birth (51.28% male and 48.03% female infants). Overall the prevalence of malnutrition was high, with 26.3% of the children being stunted, 6.3% wasted and 13.16% underweight. Prevalence of wasting was higher in the first months of life, while in older children more case of stunting and underweight were captured. Wasted infants were significantly associated with common childhood illnesses: with cough and rapid breathing as well as with diarrhea (p-value< 0.05). Stunting was associated with hygienic conditions (p-value< 0.05 in households that did not perform any water treatment and for children that had a toilet within the house compound), immunization program and low-birth-weight. Moreover, regression analysis showed that significant determinants of stunting were sex and feeding practices. Underweight was significantly associated with socio-demographic factors. CONCLUSIONS: In the specific environment where the study was conducted acute malnutrition is correlated with acute infections, while chronic malnutrition is more influenced by WASH conditions. Therefore, our findings suggest that one cannot separate infection and its risk factors as determinants of the whole malnutrition burden.
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