Differences in neurotropism and neurotoxicity among retrograde viral tracers View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2019-12

AUTHORS

Leqiang Sun, Yajie Tang, Keji Yan, Jinsong Yu, Yanyan Zou, Weize Xu, Ke Xiao, Zhihui Zhang, Weiming Li, Beili Wu, Zhe Hu, Kening Chen, Zhen F. Fu, Jinxia Dai, Gang Cao

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neurotropic virus-based tracers have been extensively applied in mapping and manipulation of neural circuits. However, their neurotropic and neurotoxic properties remain to be fully characterized. METHODS: Through neural circuit tracing, we systematically compared the neurotropism discrepancy among different multi-trans-synaptic and mono-synaptic retrograde viral tracers including pseudorabies virus (PRV), rabies virus (RV), and the newly engineered retro adeno-associated virus (rAAV2-retro) tracers. The (single-cell) RNA sequencing analysis was utilized for seeking possible attribution to neurotropism discrepancy and comparing cell toxicity caused by viral infection between glycoprotein-deleted RV (RV-∆G) and rAAV2-retro. Viral toxicity induced microglia activation and neuronal protein change were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Multi-trans-synaptic retrograde viral tracers, PRV and RV, exhibit differential neurotropism when they were used for central neural circuit tracing from popliteal lymph nodes. Mono-synaptic retrograde tracers, including RV-∆G and rAAV2-retro, displayed discrepant neurotropic property, when they were applied to trace the inputs of lateral hypothalamic area and medial preoptic nucleus. rAAV2-retro demonstrated preference in cerebral cortex, whereas RV-∆G prefers to label basal ganglia and hypothalamus. Remarkably, we detected a distinct preference for specific cortical layer of rAAV2-retro in layer 5 and RV-∆G in layer 6 when they were injected into dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus to label corticothalamic neurons in primary visual cortex. Complementation of TVA receptor gene in RV-resistant neurons enabled EnvA-pseudotyped RV infection, supporting receptors attribution to viral neurotropism. Furthermore, both RV-∆G and rAAV2-retro exerted neurotoxic influence at the injection sites and retrogradely labeled sites, while the changes were more profound for RV-∆G infection. Finally, we demonstrated a proof-of-concept strategy for more comprehensive high-order circuit tracing of a specific target nucleus by combining rAAV2-retro, RV, and rAAV tracers. CONCLUSIONS: Different multi-trans-synaptic and mono-synaptic retrograde viral tracers exhibited discrepant neurotropism within certain brain regions, even cortical layer preference. More neurotoxicity was observed under RV-∆G infection as compared with rAAV2-retro. By combining rAAV2-retro, RV, and rAAV tracers, high-order circuit tracing can be achieved. Our findings provide important reference for appropriate application of viral tracers to delineate the landscape and dissect the function of neural network. More... »

PAGES

8

References to SciGraph publications

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s13024-019-0308-6

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13024-019-0308-6

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1112021608

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30736827


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88 schema:description BACKGROUND: Neurotropic virus-based tracers have been extensively applied in mapping and manipulation of neural circuits. However, their neurotropic and neurotoxic properties remain to be fully characterized. METHODS: Through neural circuit tracing, we systematically compared the neurotropism discrepancy among different multi-trans-synaptic and mono-synaptic retrograde viral tracers including pseudorabies virus (PRV), rabies virus (RV), and the newly engineered retro adeno-associated virus (rAAV2-retro) tracers. The (single-cell) RNA sequencing analysis was utilized for seeking possible attribution to neurotropism discrepancy and comparing cell toxicity caused by viral infection between glycoprotein-deleted RV (RV-∆G) and rAAV2-retro. Viral toxicity induced microglia activation and neuronal protein change were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Multi-trans-synaptic retrograde viral tracers, PRV and RV, exhibit differential neurotropism when they were used for central neural circuit tracing from popliteal lymph nodes. Mono-synaptic retrograde tracers, including RV-∆G and rAAV2-retro, displayed discrepant neurotropic property, when they were applied to trace the inputs of lateral hypothalamic area and medial preoptic nucleus. rAAV2-retro demonstrated preference in cerebral cortex, whereas RV-∆G prefers to label basal ganglia and hypothalamus. Remarkably, we detected a distinct preference for specific cortical layer of rAAV2-retro in layer 5 and RV-∆G in layer 6 when they were injected into dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus to label corticothalamic neurons in primary visual cortex. Complementation of TVA receptor gene in RV-resistant neurons enabled EnvA-pseudotyped RV infection, supporting receptors attribution to viral neurotropism. Furthermore, both RV-∆G and rAAV2-retro exerted neurotoxic influence at the injection sites and retrogradely labeled sites, while the changes were more profound for RV-∆G infection. Finally, we demonstrated a proof-of-concept strategy for more comprehensive high-order circuit tracing of a specific target nucleus by combining rAAV2-retro, RV, and rAAV tracers. CONCLUSIONS: Different multi-trans-synaptic and mono-synaptic retrograde viral tracers exhibited discrepant neurotropism within certain brain regions, even cortical layer preference. More neurotoxicity was observed under RV-∆G infection as compared with rAAV2-retro. By combining rAAV2-retro, RV, and rAAV tracers, high-order circuit tracing can be achieved. Our findings provide important reference for appropriate application of viral tracers to delineate the landscape and dissect the function of neural network.
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