Proposal for a revised classification of the Demospongiae (Porifera) View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2015-12

AUTHORS

Christine Morrow, Paco Cárdenas

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Demospongiae is the largest sponge class including 81% of all living sponges with nearly 7,000 species worldwide. Systema Porifera (2002) was the result of a large international collaboration to update the Demospongiae higher taxa classification, essentially based on morphological data. Since then, an increasing number of molecular phylogenetic studies have considerably shaken this taxonomic framework, with numerous polyphyletic groups revealed or confirmed and new clades discovered. And yet, despite a few taxonomical changes, the overall framework of the Systema Porifera classification still stands and is used as it is by the scientific community. This has led to a widening phylogeny/classification gap which creates biases and inconsistencies for the many end-users of this classification and ultimately impedes our understanding of today's marine ecosystems and evolutionary processes. In an attempt to bridge this phylogeny/classification gap, we propose to officially revise the higher taxa Demospongiae classification. DISCUSSION: We propose a revision of the Demospongiae higher taxa classification, essentially based on molecular data of the last ten years. We recommend the use of three subclasses: Verongimorpha, Keratosa and Heteroscleromorpha. We retain seven (Agelasida, Chondrosiida, Dendroceratida, Dictyoceratida, Haplosclerida, Poecilosclerida, Verongiida) of the 13 orders from Systema Porifera. We recommend the abandonment of five order names (Hadromerida, Halichondrida, Halisarcida, lithistids, Verticillitida) and resurrect or upgrade six order names (Axinellida, Merliida, Spongillida, Sphaerocladina, Suberitida, Tetractinellida). Finally, we create seven new orders (Bubarida, Desmacellida, Polymastiida, Scopalinida, Clionaida, Tethyida, Trachycladida). These added to the recently created orders (Biemnida and Chondrillida) make a total of 22 orders in the revised classification. We propose the abandonment of the haplosclerid and poecilosclerid suborders. The family content of each order is also revised. SUMMARY: The deletion of polyphyletic taxa, the use of resurrected or new names for new clades and the proposal of new family groupings will improve the comparability of studies in a wide range of scientific fields using sponges as their object of study. It is envisaged that this will lead to new and more meaningful evolutionary hypotheses for the end-users of the Demospongiae classification. More... »

PAGES

7

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2002. Order Dictyoceratida Minchin, 1900 in SYSTEMA PORIFERA
  • 2002. Recent ‘Sphinctozoa’, Order Verticillitida, Family Verticillitidae Steinmann, 1882 in SYSTEMA PORIFERA
  • 2002. Family Merliidae Kirkpatrick, 1908 in SYSTEMA PORIFERA
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  • 2002. Family Desmacellidae Ridley & Dendy, 1886 in SYSTEMA PORIFERA
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  • 2012-05. No longer Demospongiae: Homoscleromorpha formal nomination as a fourth class of Porifera in HYDROBIOLOGIA
  • 2002. Order Dendroceratida Minchin, 1900 in SYSTEMA PORIFERA
  • 2002. Order Poecilosclerida Topsent, 1928 in SYSTEMA PORIFERA
  • 2002. Family Polymastiidae Gray, 1867 in SYSTEMA PORIFERA
  • 2002. ‘Lithistids’ Incertae Sedis in SYSTEMA PORIFERA
  • 2002. ‘Lithistid’ Demospongiae in SYSTEMA PORIFERA
  • 2002. Class Demospongiae Sollas, 1885 in SYSTEMA PORIFERA
  • 2002. Suborder Spongillina subord. nov.: Freshwater Sponges in SYSTEMA PORIFERA
  • 2002. Family Trachycladidae Hallmann in SYSTEMA PORIFERA
  • 2002. Order Verongida Bergquist, 1978 in SYSTEMA PORIFERA
  • Journal

    TITLE

    Frontiers in Zoology

    ISSUE

    1

    VOLUME

    12

    From Grant

  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12983-015-0099-8

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-015-0099-8

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006551501

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25901176


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