HIV-1 Tat immunization restores immune homeostasis and attacks the HAART-resistant blood HIV DNA: results of a randomized phase II exploratory ... View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2015-12

AUTHORS

Fabrizio Ensoli, Aurelio Cafaro, Anna Casabianca, Antonella Tripiciano, Stefania Bellino, Olimpia Longo, Vittorio Francavilla, Orietta Picconi, Cecilia Sgadari, Sonia Moretti, Maria R Pavone Cossut, Angela Arancio, Chiara Orlandi, Leonardo Sernicola, Maria T Maggiorella, Giovanni Paniccia, Cristina Mussini, Adriano Lazzarin, Laura Sighinolfi, Guido Palamara, Andrea Gori, Gioacchino Angarano, Massimo Di Pietro, Massimo Galli, Vito S Mercurio, Francesco Castelli, Giovanni Di Perri, Paolo Monini, Mauro Magnani, Enrico Garaci, Barbara Ensoli

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The phase II multicenter, randomized, open label, therapeutic trial (ISS T-002, Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00751595) was aimed at evaluating the immunogenicity and the safety of the biologically active HIV-1 Tat protein administered at 7.5 or 30 μg, given 3 or 5 times monthly, and at exploring immunological and virological disease biomarkers. The study duration was 48 weeks, however, vaccinees were followed until the last enrolled subject reached the 48 weeks. Reported are final data up to 144 weeks of follow-up. The ISS T-002 trial was conducted in 11 clinical centers in Italy on 168 HIV positive subjects under Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), anti-Tat Antibody (Ab) negative at baseline, with plasma viremia <50 copies/mL in the last 6 months prior to enrollment, and CD4(+) T-cell number ≥200 cells/μL. Subjects from a parallel observational study (ISS OBS T-002, Clinicaltrials.gov NCT0102455) enrolled at the same clinical sites with the same criteria constituted an external reference group to explore biomarkers of disease. RESULTS: The vaccine was safe and well tolerated and induced anti-Tat Abs in most patients (79%), with the highest frequency and durability in the Tat 30 μg groups (89%) particularly when given 3 times (92%). Vaccination promoted a durable and significant restoration of T, B, natural killer (NK) cells, and CD4(+) and CD8(+) central memory subsets. Moreover, a significant reduction of blood proviral DNA was seen after week 72, particularly under PI-based regimens and with Tat 30 μg given 3 times (30 μg, 3x), reaching a predicted 70% decay after 3 years from vaccination with a half-life of 88 weeks. This decay was significantly associated with anti-Tat IgM and IgG Abs and neutralization of Tat-mediated entry of oligomeric Env in dendritic cells, which predicted HIV-1 DNA decay. Finally, the 30 μg, 3x group was the only one showing significant increases of NK cells and CD38(+)HLA-DR(+)/CD8(+) T cells, a phenotype associated with increased killing activity in elite controllers. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-Tat immune responses are needed to restore immune homeostasis and effective anti-viral responses capable of attacking the virus reservoir. Thus, Tat immunization represents a promising pathogenesis-driven intervention to intensify HAART efficacy. More... »

PAGES

33

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12977-015-0151-y

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12977-015-0151-y

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005721249

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25924841


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