The plasticity of primary microglia and their multifaceted effects on endogenous neural stem cells in vitro and in vivo View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2018-12

AUTHORS

Sabine Ulrike Vay, Lea Jessica Flitsch, Monika Rabenstein, Rebecca Rogall, Stefan Blaschke, Judith Kleinhaus, Noémie Reinert, Annika Bach, Gereon Rudolf Fink, Michael Schroeter, Maria Adele Rueger

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Microglia-the resident immune cells of the brain-are activated after brain lesions, e.g., cerebral ischemia, and polarize towards a classic "M1" pro-inflammatory or an alternative "M2" anti-inflammatory phenotype following characteristic temporo-spatial patterns, contributing either to secondary tissue damage or to regenerative responses. They closely interact with endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) residing in distinct niches of the adult brain. The current study aimed at elucidating the dynamics of microglia polarization and their differential effects on NSC function. RESULTS: Primary rat microglia in vitro were polarized towards a M1 phenotype by LPS, or to a M2 phenotype by IL4, while simultaneous exposure to LPS plus IL4 resulted in a hybrid phenotype expressing both M1- and M2-characteristic markers. M2 microglia migrated less but exhibit higher phagocytic activity than M1 microglia. Defined mediators switched microglia from one polarization state to the other, a process more effective when transforming M2 microglia towards M1 than vice versa. Polarized microglia had differential effects on the differentiation potential of NSCs in vitro and in vivo, with M1 microglia promoting astrocytogenesis, while M2 microglia supported neurogenesis. Regardless of their polarization, microglia inhibited NSC proliferation, increased NSC migration, and accelerated NSC differentiation. CONCLUSION: Overall, this study shed light on the complex conditions governing microglia polarization and the effects of differentially polarized microglia on critical functions of NSCs in vitro and in vivo. Refining the understanding of microglia activation and their modulatory effects on NSCs is likely to facilitate the development of innovative therapeutic concepts supporting the innate regenerative capacity of the brain. More... »

PAGES

226

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2011-11. Microglial cell origin and phenotypes in health and disease in NATURE REVIEWS IMMUNOLOGY
  • 2012-08. Cross-talk between neural stem cells and immune cells: the key to better brain repair? in NATURE NEUROSCIENCE
  • 2002-09. Neuronal replacement from endogenous precursors in the adult brain after stroke in NATURE MEDICINE
  • 2013-09. M2 microglia and macrophages drive oligodendrocyte differentiation during CNS remyelination in NATURE NEUROSCIENCE
  • 2008-12. Exploring the full spectrum of macrophage activation in NATURE REVIEWS IMMUNOLOGY
  • 2005-07. Neurosphere-derived multipotent precursors promote neuroprotection by an immunomodulatory mechanism in NATURE
  • 2013-12. The microglial sensome revealed by direct RNA sequencing in NATURE NEUROSCIENCE
  • 2012-11. Neural progenitor cells regulate microglia functions and activity in NATURE NEUROSCIENCE
  • 2017-12. Responses of rat and mouse primary microglia to pro- and anti-inflammatory stimuli: molecular profiles, K+ channels and migration in JOURNAL OF NEUROINFLAMMATION
  • 2010-12. Dynamics of neuroinflammation in the macrosphere model of arterio-arterial embolic focal ischemia: an approximation to human stroke patterns in EXPERIMENTAL & TRANSLATIONAL STROKE MEDICINE
  • 2016-08. A polarizing question: do M1 and M2 microglia exist? in NATURE NEUROSCIENCE
  • 2016-03. Differential Roles of M1 and M2 Microglia in Neurodegenerative Diseases in MOLECULAR NEUROBIOLOGY
  • 2014-01. Identification of a unique TGF-β–dependent molecular and functional signature in microglia in NATURE NEUROSCIENCE
  • 2013-12. Macrophages in inflammatory multiple sclerosis lesions have an intermediate activation status in JOURNAL OF NEUROINFLAMMATION
  • 1974-05. Microglia and reactive “M” cells of degenerating central nervous system: Does similar morphology and function imply a common origin? in CELL AND TISSUE RESEARCH
  • 2017-01. Neurotoxic reactive astrocytes are induced by activated microglia in NATURE
  • 2016-12. Brain trauma elicits non-canonical macrophage activation states in JOURNAL OF NEUROINFLAMMATION
  • 2009-03. The bright side of the glial scar in CNS repair in NATURE REVIEWS NEUROSCIENCE
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12974-018-1261-y

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-018-1261-y

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1106141285

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30103769


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1109", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Neurosciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/11", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Medical and Health Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University Hospital Cologne", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411097.a", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, 50924, Cologne, Germany"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Vay", 
            "givenName": "Sabine Ulrike", 
            "id": "sg:person.01214151467.25", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01214151467.25"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University Hospital Cologne", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411097.a", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, 50924, Cologne, Germany"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Flitsch", 
            "givenName": "Lea Jessica", 
            "id": "sg:person.012763727161.34", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012763727161.34"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University Hospital Cologne", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411097.a", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, 50924, Cologne, Germany"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Rabenstein", 
            "givenName": "Monika", 
            "id": "sg:person.0721443115.01", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0721443115.01"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University Hospital Cologne", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411097.a", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, 50924, Cologne, Germany"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Rogall", 
            "givenName": "Rebecca", 
            "id": "sg:person.010242110114.09", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010242110114.09"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Forschungszentrum J\u00fclich", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8385.6", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, 50924, Cologne, Germany", 
                "Cognitive Neuroscience, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3), Research Centre Juelich, Juelich, Germany"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Blaschke", 
            "givenName": "Stefan", 
            "id": "sg:person.0701401154.80", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0701401154.80"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University Hospital Cologne", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411097.a", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, 50924, Cologne, Germany"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Kleinhaus", 
            "givenName": "Judith", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University Hospital Cologne", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411097.a", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, 50924, Cologne, Germany"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Reinert", 
            "givenName": "No\u00e9mie", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University Hospital Cologne", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411097.a", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, 50924, Cologne, Germany"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Bach", 
            "givenName": "Annika", 
            "id": "sg:person.014025372514.35", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014025372514.35"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Forschungszentrum J\u00fclich", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8385.6", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, 50924, Cologne, Germany", 
                "Cognitive Neuroscience, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3), Research Centre Juelich, Juelich, Germany"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Fink", 
            "givenName": "Gereon Rudolf", 
            "id": "sg:person.01071124046.71", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01071124046.71"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Forschungszentrum J\u00fclich", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8385.6", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, 50924, Cologne, Germany", 
                "Cognitive Neuroscience, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3), Research Centre Juelich, Juelich, Germany"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Schroeter", 
            "givenName": "Michael", 
            "id": "sg:person.01125741077.05", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01125741077.05"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Forschungszentrum J\u00fclich", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8385.6", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, 50924, Cologne, Germany", 
                "Cognitive Neuroscience, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3), Research Centre Juelich, Juelich, Germany"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Rueger", 
            "givenName": "Maria Adele", 
            "id": "sg:person.0761403535.54", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0761403535.54"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s12035-014-9070-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000424616", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s12035-014-9070-5"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.5259-11.2012", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001630461"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2012.00041", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001721863"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00032.2010", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002355499"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nm747", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002915711", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nm747"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nm747", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002915711", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nm747"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0301-0082(98)00034-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002955964"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2014.05.030", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002980421"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.22455", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003085355"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1586/ern.11.64", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003660676"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nn.3469", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003887454", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.3469"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027969", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004007583"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nn.3163", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006478023", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.3163"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nrn2591", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006651607", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn2591"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00221932", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008021066", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00221932"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.173.6.3916", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008927643"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.3547-03.2004", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009747048"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nn.3233", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011780622", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.3233"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.22478", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011799556"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s12974-016-0581-z", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011819416", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/s12974-016-0581-z"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.4158-11.2011", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012026805"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2012.12.023", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012429902"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/610343", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013577257"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/2040-7378-2-22", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013867408", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/2040-7378-2-22"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2010.02.008", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014168333"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.02.024", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014302007"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0896-6273(00)80781-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014548735"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1161/strokeaha.112.659656", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014622768"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1161/strokeaha.112.659656", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014622768"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2010.02.016", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015811420"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nn.3554", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016133129", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.3554"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2237050100", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016427423"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1634/stemcells.2005-0281", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016519185"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1634/stemcells.2005-0281", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016519185"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jnr.23686", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016534966"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nn.3599", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017349450", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.3599"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nri3086", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017867309", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nri3086"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.it.2008.05.002", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019135692"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2016.09.009", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019566565"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0166-2236(96)10049-7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019601232"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/01.wco.0000169752.54191.97", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020503792"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/01.wco.0000169752.54191.97", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020503792"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/01.wco.0000169752.54191.97", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020503792"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/01.wco.0000169752.54191.97", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020503792"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nri2448", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021026660", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nri2448"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2009.02.003", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021406780"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0092-8674(02)00862-0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022579954"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature21029", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024342012", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature21029"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2015.05.003", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025216335"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.0156-06.2006", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025241294"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.176.1.287", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029137192"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature03889", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029660300", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature03889"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature03889", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029660300", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature03889"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature03889", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029660300", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature03889"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature03889", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029660300", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature03889"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1742-2094-10-35", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038168378", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-2094-10-35"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2014.00240", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039894705"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.22550", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040384799"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcn.2005.10.006", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040513941"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcn.2005.10.006", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040513941"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.440070117", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040806615"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-032713-120240", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044022904"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.6092-09.2010", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044592712"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2013.02.005", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046240350"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1110647", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047502402"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1533187100", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047510236"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nn.4338", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047909787", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.4338"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.3206-12.2013", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047982957"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2013.08.001", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048917104"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1194637", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051754183"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/aws322", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052539902"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.19-14-05810.1999", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074491353"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5405104", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083419598"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.15774", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1084372892"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2017.00208", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1090279181"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s12974-017-0941-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091292180", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/s12974-017-0941-3"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s12974-017-0941-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091292180", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/s12974-017-0941-3"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2017.07.010", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091687767"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2017.10.034", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092478724"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2018.00012", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1100984610"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/stem.2827", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1101752408"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2018-12", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2018-12-01", 
        "description": "BACKGROUND: Microglia-the resident immune cells of the brain-are activated after brain lesions, e.g., cerebral ischemia, and polarize towards a classic \"M1\" pro-inflammatory or an alternative \"M2\" anti-inflammatory phenotype following characteristic temporo-spatial patterns, contributing either to secondary tissue damage or to regenerative responses. They closely interact with endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) residing in distinct niches of the adult brain. The current study aimed at elucidating the dynamics of microglia polarization and their differential effects on NSC function.\nRESULTS: Primary rat microglia in vitro were polarized towards a M1 phenotype by LPS, or to a M2 phenotype by IL4, while simultaneous exposure to LPS plus IL4 resulted in a hybrid phenotype expressing both M1- and M2-characteristic markers. M2 microglia migrated less but exhibit higher phagocytic activity than M1 microglia. Defined mediators switched microglia from one polarization state to the other, a process more effective when transforming M2 microglia towards M1 than vice versa. Polarized microglia had differential effects on the differentiation potential of NSCs in vitro and in vivo, with M1 microglia promoting astrocytogenesis, while M2 microglia supported neurogenesis. Regardless of their polarization, microglia inhibited NSC proliferation, increased NSC migration, and accelerated NSC differentiation.\nCONCLUSION: Overall, this study shed light on the complex conditions governing microglia polarization and the effects of differentially polarized microglia on critical functions of NSCs in vitro and in vivo. Refining the understanding of microglia activation and their modulatory effects on NSCs is likely to facilitate the development of innovative therapeutic concepts supporting the innate regenerative capacity of the brain.", 
        "genre": "research_article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s12974-018-1261-y", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1034001", 
            "issn": [
              "1742-2094"
            ], 
            "name": "Journal of Neuroinflammation", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "1", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "15"
          }
        ], 
        "name": "The plasticity of primary microglia and their multifaceted effects on endogenous neural stem cells in vitro and in vivo", 
        "pagination": "226", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "38d56df419a8dd94d012166297b475c80f09b3fbc974fa286f06866b700536b2"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "pubmed_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "30103769"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "101222974"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1186/s12974-018-1261-y"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1106141285"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/s12974-018-1261-y", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1106141285"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-10T20:06", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8681_00000572.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://link.springer.com/10.1186%2Fs12974-018-1261-y"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12974-018-1261-y'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12974-018-1261-y'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12974-018-1261-y'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12974-018-1261-y'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    368 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      99 URIs      21 LITERALS      9 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1186/s12974-018-1261-y schema:about anzsrc-for:11
    2 anzsrc-for:1109
    3 schema:author Nf256ffdbe368452c9b28a84191bed3b8
    4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/bf00221932
    5 sg:pub.10.1007/s12035-014-9070-5
    6 sg:pub.10.1038/nature03889
    7 sg:pub.10.1038/nature21029
    8 sg:pub.10.1038/nm747
    9 sg:pub.10.1038/nn.3163
    10 sg:pub.10.1038/nn.3233
    11 sg:pub.10.1038/nn.3469
    12 sg:pub.10.1038/nn.3554
    13 sg:pub.10.1038/nn.3599
    14 sg:pub.10.1038/nn.4338
    15 sg:pub.10.1038/nri2448
    16 sg:pub.10.1038/nri3086
    17 sg:pub.10.1038/nrn2591
    18 sg:pub.10.1186/1742-2094-10-35
    19 sg:pub.10.1186/2040-7378-2-22
    20 sg:pub.10.1186/s12974-016-0581-z
    21 sg:pub.10.1186/s12974-017-0941-3
    22 https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.22455
    23 https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.22478
    24 https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.22550
    25 https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.440070117
    26 https://doi.org/10.1002/jnr.23686
    27 https://doi.org/10.1002/stem.2827
    28 https://doi.org/10.1016/0166-2236(96)10049-7
    29 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2013.02.005
    30 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2014.05.030
    31 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2010.02.016
    32 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2010.02.008
    33 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.it.2008.05.002
    34 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2009.02.003
    35 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2016.09.009
    36 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcn.2005.10.006
    37 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2012.12.023
    38 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2017.07.010
    39 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.02.024
    40 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2017.10.034
    41 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2013.08.001
    42 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2015.05.003
    43 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0092-8674(02)00862-0
    44 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0301-0082(98)00034-3
    45 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0896-6273(00)80781-3
    46 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1533187100
    47 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2237050100
    48 https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.176.1.287
    49 https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/aws322
    50 https://doi.org/10.1097/01.wco.0000169752.54191.97
    51 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1110647
    52 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1194637
    53 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-032713-120240
    54 https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00032.2010
    55 https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/610343
    56 https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5405104
    57 https://doi.org/10.1161/strokeaha.112.659656
    58 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027969
    59 https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.0156-06.2006
    60 https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.19-14-05810.1999
    61 https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.3206-12.2013
    62 https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.3547-03.2004
    63 https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.4158-11.2011
    64 https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.5259-11.2012
    65 https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.6092-09.2010
    66 https://doi.org/10.1586/ern.11.64
    67 https://doi.org/10.1634/stemcells.2005-0281
    68 https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.15774
    69 https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2017.00208
    70 https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2018.00012
    71 https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2014.00240
    72 https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2012.00041
    73 https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.173.6.3916
    74 schema:datePublished 2018-12
    75 schema:datePublishedReg 2018-12-01
    76 schema:description BACKGROUND: Microglia-the resident immune cells of the brain-are activated after brain lesions, e.g., cerebral ischemia, and polarize towards a classic "M1" pro-inflammatory or an alternative "M2" anti-inflammatory phenotype following characteristic temporo-spatial patterns, contributing either to secondary tissue damage or to regenerative responses. They closely interact with endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) residing in distinct niches of the adult brain. The current study aimed at elucidating the dynamics of microglia polarization and their differential effects on NSC function. RESULTS: Primary rat microglia in vitro were polarized towards a M1 phenotype by LPS, or to a M2 phenotype by IL4, while simultaneous exposure to LPS plus IL4 resulted in a hybrid phenotype expressing both M1- and M2-characteristic markers. M2 microglia migrated less but exhibit higher phagocytic activity than M1 microglia. Defined mediators switched microglia from one polarization state to the other, a process more effective when transforming M2 microglia towards M1 than vice versa. Polarized microglia had differential effects on the differentiation potential of NSCs in vitro and in vivo, with M1 microglia promoting astrocytogenesis, while M2 microglia supported neurogenesis. Regardless of their polarization, microglia inhibited NSC proliferation, increased NSC migration, and accelerated NSC differentiation. CONCLUSION: Overall, this study shed light on the complex conditions governing microglia polarization and the effects of differentially polarized microglia on critical functions of NSCs in vitro and in vivo. Refining the understanding of microglia activation and their modulatory effects on NSCs is likely to facilitate the development of innovative therapeutic concepts supporting the innate regenerative capacity of the brain.
    77 schema:genre research_article
    78 schema:inLanguage en
    79 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
    80 schema:isPartOf N8bc1a6f118c642f79146986109a16cdf
    81 Ne5fb37bc9e204872ade2fe54b7bb30a4
    82 sg:journal.1034001
    83 schema:name The plasticity of primary microglia and their multifaceted effects on endogenous neural stem cells in vitro and in vivo
    84 schema:pagination 226
    85 schema:productId N1243a676222c443da1d123881090bef3
    86 N7efed49e0a6b432b93575b04dbe01aff
    87 N9eccf7a8100d491ea5bc57d2179a1d21
    88 Nf3f526733fa448a988c1d00b78e289b9
    89 Nfb139db0ec554c839f151cab1b073e07
    90 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1106141285
    91 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12974-018-1261-y
    92 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-10T20:06
    93 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    94 schema:sdPublisher N721bc91bc778435b954555a52b48d67c
    95 schema:url https://link.springer.com/10.1186%2Fs12974-018-1261-y
    96 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    97 sgo:sdDataset articles
    98 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    99 N06dcdbce8f1d49d7a212671880742ecd rdf:first sg:person.0701401154.80
    100 rdf:rest Neccf5645d64b4739913dddb19dbf51bd
    101 N1243a676222c443da1d123881090bef3 schema:name readcube_id
    102 schema:value 38d56df419a8dd94d012166297b475c80f09b3fbc974fa286f06866b700536b2
    103 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    104 N471a1c925f5649ac9362ab93486e097d schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411097.a
    105 schema:familyName Kleinhaus
    106 schema:givenName Judith
    107 rdf:type schema:Person
    108 N721bc91bc778435b954555a52b48d67c schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    109 rdf:type schema:Organization
    110 N7750e599a48b419cb1f8b7ba2fc808e4 rdf:first sg:person.014025372514.35
    111 rdf:rest N78032a1b960349f795695c2bd4c432bf
    112 N78032a1b960349f795695c2bd4c432bf rdf:first sg:person.01071124046.71
    113 rdf:rest Nc38c9e83775b456288b9a54ea6a01f16
    114 N7a2de35338e3421b8be879936b6cdee4 rdf:first N9adb7cbe1b784f7296adb0af2ffe1f39
    115 rdf:rest N7750e599a48b419cb1f8b7ba2fc808e4
    116 N7efed49e0a6b432b93575b04dbe01aff schema:name pubmed_id
    117 schema:value 30103769
    118 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    119 N8bc1a6f118c642f79146986109a16cdf schema:volumeNumber 15
    120 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    121 N92ba89cd4b884449808168e22e58d497 rdf:first sg:person.0761403535.54
    122 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    123 N9adb7cbe1b784f7296adb0af2ffe1f39 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411097.a
    124 schema:familyName Reinert
    125 schema:givenName Noémie
    126 rdf:type schema:Person
    127 N9eccf7a8100d491ea5bc57d2179a1d21 schema:name doi
    128 schema:value 10.1186/s12974-018-1261-y
    129 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    130 Nc1cc48cf887a45daa1d8fa2ba1988816 rdf:first sg:person.012763727161.34
    131 rdf:rest Nd035e5395adc4ced97393634a7a6ef28
    132 Nc38c9e83775b456288b9a54ea6a01f16 rdf:first sg:person.01125741077.05
    133 rdf:rest N92ba89cd4b884449808168e22e58d497
    134 Nd035e5395adc4ced97393634a7a6ef28 rdf:first sg:person.0721443115.01
    135 rdf:rest Nffddf972ca6245b9b41f21bb2fd6e5e9
    136 Ne5fb37bc9e204872ade2fe54b7bb30a4 schema:issueNumber 1
    137 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    138 Neccf5645d64b4739913dddb19dbf51bd rdf:first N471a1c925f5649ac9362ab93486e097d
    139 rdf:rest N7a2de35338e3421b8be879936b6cdee4
    140 Nf256ffdbe368452c9b28a84191bed3b8 rdf:first sg:person.01214151467.25
    141 rdf:rest Nc1cc48cf887a45daa1d8fa2ba1988816
    142 Nf3f526733fa448a988c1d00b78e289b9 schema:name dimensions_id
    143 schema:value pub.1106141285
    144 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    145 Nfb139db0ec554c839f151cab1b073e07 schema:name nlm_unique_id
    146 schema:value 101222974
    147 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    148 Nffddf972ca6245b9b41f21bb2fd6e5e9 rdf:first sg:person.010242110114.09
    149 rdf:rest N06dcdbce8f1d49d7a212671880742ecd
    150 anzsrc-for:11 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    151 schema:name Medical and Health Sciences
    152 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    153 anzsrc-for:1109 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    154 schema:name Neurosciences
    155 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    156 sg:journal.1034001 schema:issn 1742-2094
    157 schema:name Journal of Neuroinflammation
    158 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    159 sg:person.010242110114.09 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411097.a
    160 schema:familyName Rogall
    161 schema:givenName Rebecca
    162 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010242110114.09
    163 rdf:type schema:Person
    164 sg:person.01071124046.71 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8385.6
    165 schema:familyName Fink
    166 schema:givenName Gereon Rudolf
    167 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01071124046.71
    168 rdf:type schema:Person
    169 sg:person.01125741077.05 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8385.6
    170 schema:familyName Schroeter
    171 schema:givenName Michael
    172 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01125741077.05
    173 rdf:type schema:Person
    174 sg:person.01214151467.25 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411097.a
    175 schema:familyName Vay
    176 schema:givenName Sabine Ulrike
    177 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01214151467.25
    178 rdf:type schema:Person
    179 sg:person.012763727161.34 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411097.a
    180 schema:familyName Flitsch
    181 schema:givenName Lea Jessica
    182 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012763727161.34
    183 rdf:type schema:Person
    184 sg:person.014025372514.35 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411097.a
    185 schema:familyName Bach
    186 schema:givenName Annika
    187 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014025372514.35
    188 rdf:type schema:Person
    189 sg:person.0701401154.80 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8385.6
    190 schema:familyName Blaschke
    191 schema:givenName Stefan
    192 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0701401154.80
    193 rdf:type schema:Person
    194 sg:person.0721443115.01 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411097.a
    195 schema:familyName Rabenstein
    196 schema:givenName Monika
    197 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0721443115.01
    198 rdf:type schema:Person
    199 sg:person.0761403535.54 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8385.6
    200 schema:familyName Rueger
    201 schema:givenName Maria Adele
    202 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0761403535.54
    203 rdf:type schema:Person
    204 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00221932 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008021066
    205 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00221932
    206 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    207 sg:pub.10.1007/s12035-014-9070-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000424616
    208 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12035-014-9070-5
    209 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    210 sg:pub.10.1038/nature03889 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029660300
    211 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature03889
    212 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    213 sg:pub.10.1038/nature21029 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024342012
    214 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature21029
    215 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    216 sg:pub.10.1038/nm747 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002915711
    217 https://doi.org/10.1038/nm747
    218 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    219 sg:pub.10.1038/nn.3163 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006478023
    220 https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.3163
    221 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    222 sg:pub.10.1038/nn.3233 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011780622
    223 https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.3233
    224 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    225 sg:pub.10.1038/nn.3469 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003887454
    226 https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.3469
    227 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    228 sg:pub.10.1038/nn.3554 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016133129
    229 https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.3554
    230 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    231 sg:pub.10.1038/nn.3599 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017349450
    232 https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.3599
    233 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    234 sg:pub.10.1038/nn.4338 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047909787
    235 https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.4338
    236 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    237 sg:pub.10.1038/nri2448 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021026660
    238 https://doi.org/10.1038/nri2448
    239 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    240 sg:pub.10.1038/nri3086 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017867309
    241 https://doi.org/10.1038/nri3086
    242 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    243 sg:pub.10.1038/nrn2591 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006651607
    244 https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn2591
    245 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    246 sg:pub.10.1186/1742-2094-10-35 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038168378
    247 https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-2094-10-35
    248 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    249 sg:pub.10.1186/2040-7378-2-22 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013867408
    250 https://doi.org/10.1186/2040-7378-2-22
    251 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    252 sg:pub.10.1186/s12974-016-0581-z schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011819416
    253 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12974-016-0581-z
    254 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    255 sg:pub.10.1186/s12974-017-0941-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091292180
    256 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12974-017-0941-3
    257 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    258 https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.22455 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003085355
    259 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    260 https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.22478 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011799556
    261 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    262 https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.22550 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040384799
    263 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    264 https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.440070117 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040806615
    265 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    266 https://doi.org/10.1002/jnr.23686 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016534966
    267 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    268 https://doi.org/10.1002/stem.2827 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1101752408
    269 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    270 https://doi.org/10.1016/0166-2236(96)10049-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019601232
    271 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    272 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2013.02.005 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046240350
    273 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    274 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2014.05.030 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002980421
    275 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    276 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2010.02.016 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015811420
    277 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    278 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2010.02.008 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014168333
    279 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    280 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.it.2008.05.002 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019135692
    281 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    282 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2009.02.003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021406780
    283 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    284 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2016.09.009 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019566565
    285 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    286 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcn.2005.10.006 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040513941
    287 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    288 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2012.12.023 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012429902
    289 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    290 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2017.07.010 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091687767
    291 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    292 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.02.024 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014302007
    293 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    294 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2017.10.034 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092478724
    295 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    296 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2013.08.001 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048917104
    297 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    298 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2015.05.003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025216335
    299 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    300 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0092-8674(02)00862-0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022579954
    301 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    302 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0301-0082(98)00034-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002955964
    303 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    304 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0896-6273(00)80781-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014548735
    305 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    306 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1533187100 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047510236
    307 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    308 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2237050100 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016427423
    309 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    310 https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.176.1.287 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029137192
    311 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    312 https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/aws322 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052539902
    313 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    314 https://doi.org/10.1097/01.wco.0000169752.54191.97 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020503792
    315 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    316 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1110647 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047502402
    317 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    318 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1194637 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051754183
    319 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    320 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-032713-120240 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044022904
    321 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    322 https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00032.2010 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002355499
    323 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    324 https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/610343 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013577257
    325 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    326 https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5405104 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083419598
    327 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    328 https://doi.org/10.1161/strokeaha.112.659656 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014622768
    329 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    330 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027969 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004007583
    331 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    332 https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.0156-06.2006 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025241294
    333 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    334 https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.19-14-05810.1999 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074491353
    335 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    336 https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.3206-12.2013 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047982957
    337 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    338 https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.3547-03.2004 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009747048
    339 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    340 https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.4158-11.2011 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012026805
    341 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    342 https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.5259-11.2012 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001630461
    343 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    344 https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.6092-09.2010 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044592712
    345 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    346 https://doi.org/10.1586/ern.11.64 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003660676
    347 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    348 https://doi.org/10.1634/stemcells.2005-0281 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016519185
    349 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    350 https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.15774 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1084372892
    351 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    352 https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2017.00208 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1090279181
    353 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    354 https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2018.00012 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1100984610
    355 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    356 https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2014.00240 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039894705
    357 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    358 https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2012.00041 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001721863
    359 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    360 https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.173.6.3916 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008927643
    361 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    362 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411097.a schema:alternateName University Hospital Cologne
    363 schema:name Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, 50924, Cologne, Germany
    364 rdf:type schema:Organization
    365 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8385.6 schema:alternateName Forschungszentrum Jülich
    366 schema:name Cognitive Neuroscience, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3), Research Centre Juelich, Juelich, Germany
    367 Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, 50924, Cologne, Germany
    368 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...