Polyunsaturated fatty acid receptors, GPR40 and GPR120, are expressed in the hypothalamus and control energy homeostasis and inflammation View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2017-04-26

AUTHORS

Nathalia R. V. Dragano, Carina Solon, Albina F. Ramalho, Rodrigo F. de Moura, Daniela S. Razolli, Elisabeth Christiansen, Carlos Azevedo, Trond Ulven, Licio A. Velloso

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe consumption of large amounts of dietary fats is one of the most important environmental factors contributing to the development of obesity and metabolic disorders. GPR120 and GPR40 are polyunsaturated fatty acid receptors that exert a number of systemic effects that are beneficial for metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Here, we evaluate the expression and potential role of hypothalamic GPR120 and GPR40 as targets for the treatment of obesity.MethodsMale Swiss (6-weeks old), were fed with a high fat diet (HFD, 60% of kcal from fat) for 4 weeks. Next, mice underwent stereotaxic surgery to place an indwelling cannula into the right lateral ventricle. intracerebroventricular (icv)-cannulated mice were treated twice a day for 6 days with 2.0 μL saline or GPR40 and GPR120 agonists: GW9508, TUG1197, or TUG905 (2.0 μL, 1.0 mM). Food intake and body mass were measured during the treatment period. At the end of the experiment, the hypothalamus was collected for real-time PCR analysis.ResultsWe show that both receptors are expressed in the hypothalamus; GPR120 is primarily present in microglia, whereas GPR40 is expressed in neurons. Upon intracerebroventricular treatment, GW9508, a non-specific agonist for both receptors, reduced energy efficiency and the expression of inflammatory genes in the hypothalamus. Reducing GPR120 hypothalamic expression using a lentivirus-based approach resulted in the loss of the anti-inflammatory effect of GW9508 and increased energy efficiency. Intracerebroventricular treatment with the GPR120- and GPR40-specific agonists TUG1197 and TUG905, respectively, resulted in milder effects than those produced by GW9508.ConclusionsGPR120 and GPR40 act in concert in the hypothalamus to reduce energy efficiency and regulate the inflammation associated with obesity. The combined activation of both receptors in the hypothalamus results in better metabolic outcomes than the isolated activation of either receptor alone. More... »

PAGES

91

References to SciGraph publications

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    33 schema:description BackgroundThe consumption of large amounts of dietary fats is one of the most important environmental factors contributing to the development of obesity and metabolic disorders. GPR120 and GPR40 are polyunsaturated fatty acid receptors that exert a number of systemic effects that are beneficial for metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Here, we evaluate the expression and potential role of hypothalamic GPR120 and GPR40 as targets for the treatment of obesity.MethodsMale Swiss (6-weeks old), were fed with a high fat diet (HFD, 60% of kcal from fat) for 4 weeks. Next, mice underwent stereotaxic surgery to place an indwelling cannula into the right lateral ventricle. intracerebroventricular (icv)-cannulated mice were treated twice a day for 6 days with 2.0 μL saline or GPR40 and GPR120 agonists: GW9508, TUG1197, or TUG905 (2.0 μL, 1.0 mM). Food intake and body mass were measured during the treatment period. At the end of the experiment, the hypothalamus was collected for real-time PCR analysis.ResultsWe show that both receptors are expressed in the hypothalamus; GPR120 is primarily present in microglia, whereas GPR40 is expressed in neurons. Upon intracerebroventricular treatment, GW9508, a non-specific agonist for both receptors, reduced energy efficiency and the expression of inflammatory genes in the hypothalamus. Reducing GPR120 hypothalamic expression using a lentivirus-based approach resulted in the loss of the anti-inflammatory effect of GW9508 and increased energy efficiency. Intracerebroventricular treatment with the GPR120- and GPR40-specific agonists TUG1197 and TUG905, respectively, resulted in milder effects than those produced by GW9508.ConclusionsGPR120 and GPR40 act in concert in the hypothalamus to reduce energy efficiency and regulate the inflammation associated with obesity. The combined activation of both receptors in the hypothalamus results in better metabolic outcomes than the isolated activation of either receptor alone.
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    40 GPR40
    41 GW9508
    42 PCR analysis
    43 ResultsWe
    44 Swiss
    45 acid receptors
    46 activation
    47 agonists
    48 amount
    49 analysis
    50 anti-inflammatory effects
    51 approach
    52 better metabolic outcomes
    53 body mass
    54 cannula
    55 combined activation
    56 concert
    57 consumption
    58 days
    59 development
    60 development of obesity
    61 diet
    62 dietary fat
    63 disease
    64 disorders
    65 effect
    66 efficiency
    67 end
    68 energy efficiency
    69 energy homeostasis
    70 environmental factors
    71 experiments
    72 expression
    73 factors
    74 fat
    75 fat diet
    76 fatty acid receptors
    77 food intake
    78 genes
    79 high-fat diet
    80 homeostasis
    81 hypothalamic expression
    82 hypothalamus
    83 hypothalamus results
    84 important environmental factors
    85 inflammation
    86 inflammatory diseases
    87 inflammatory genes
    88 intake
    89 intracerebroventricular treatment
    90 isolated activation
    91 large amount
    92 lateral ventricle
    93 loss
    94 mass
    95 metabolic disorders
    96 metabolic outcomes
    97 mice
    98 microglia
    99 mild effect
    100 neurons
    101 non-specific agonist
    102 number
    103 obesity
    104 outcomes
    105 period
    106 potential role
    107 real-time PCR analysis
    108 receptors
    109 results
    110 right lateral ventricle
    111 role
    112 saline
    113 stereotaxic surgery
    114 surgery
    115 systemic effects
    116 target
    117 treatment
    118 treatment of obesity
    119 treatment period
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