Efficiency of private and public primary health facilities accredited by the National Health Insurance Authority in Ghana View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2015-12

AUTHORS

Robert Kaba Alhassan, Edward Nketiah-Amponsah, James Akazili, Nicole Spieker, Daniel Kojo Arhinful, Tobias F Rinke de Wit

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in a number of health outcome indicators partly due to the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), Ghana is unlikely to attain all its health-related millennium development goals before the end of 2015. Inefficient use of available limited resources has been cited as a contributory factor for this predicament. This study sought to explore efficiency levels of NHIS-accredited private and public health facilities; ascertain factors that account for differences in efficiency and determine the association between quality care and efficiency levels. METHODS: The study is a cross-sectional survey of NHIS-accredited primary health facilities (n = 64) in two regions in southern Ghana. Data Envelopment Analysis was used to estimate technical efficiency of sampled health facilities while Tobit regression was employed to predict factors associated with efficiency levels. Spearman correlation test was performed to determine the association between quality care and efficiency. RESULTS: Overall, 20 out of the 64 health facilities (31 %) were optimally efficient relative to their peers. Out of the 20 efficient facilities, 10 (50 %) were Public/government owned facilities; 8 (40 %) were Private-for-profit facilities and 2 (10 %) were Private-not-for-profit/Mission facilities. Mission (Coef. = 52.1; p = 0.000) and Public (Coef. = 42.9; p = 0.002) facilities located in the Western region (predominantly rural) had higher odds of attaining the 100 % technical efficiency benchmark than those located in the Greater Accra region (largely urban). No significant association was found between technical efficiency scores of health facilities and many technical quality care proxies, except in overall quality score per the NHIS accreditation data (Coef. = -0.3158; p < 0.05) and SafeCare Essentials quality score on environmental safety for staff and patients (Coef. = -0.2764; p < 0.05) where the association was negative. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest some level of wastage of health resources in many healthcare facilities, especially those located in urban areas. The Ministry of Health and relevant stakeholders should undertake more effective need analysis to inform resource allocation, distribution and capacity building to promote efficient utilization of limited resources without compromising quality care standards. More... »

PAGES

23

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12962-015-0050-z

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12962-015-0050-z

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050224745

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26709349


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1402", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Applied Economics", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/14", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Economics", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Amsterdam", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.7177.6", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Epidemiology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research (NMIMR), University of Ghana, Legon, P.O Box LG 583, Accra, Ghana", 
            "Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Alhassan", 
        "givenName": "Robert Kaba", 
        "id": "sg:person.01313203114.56", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01313203114.56"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Ghana", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8652.9", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Economics, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Nketiah-Amponsah", 
        "givenName": "Edward", 
        "id": "sg:person.01025106672.48", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01025106672.48"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Navrongo Health Research Centre", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.415943.e", 
          "name": [
            "Health Research Unit of Ghana Health Service, Navrongo Health Research Centre, Navrongo, Ghana"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Akazili", 
        "givenName": "James", 
        "id": "sg:person.01050323552.12", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01050323552.12"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "PharmAccess Group", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.487140.e", 
          "name": [
            "PharmAccess Foundation, Amsterdam, The Netherlands"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Spieker", 
        "givenName": "Nicole", 
        "id": "sg:person.01361316314.19", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01361316314.19"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.462644.6", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Epidemiology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research (NMIMR), University of Ghana, Legon, P.O Box LG 583, Accra, Ghana"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Arhinful", 
        "givenName": "Daniel Kojo", 
        "id": "sg:person.0721515426.39", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0721515426.39"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "PharmAccess Group", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.487140.e", 
          "name": [
            "Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands", 
            "PharmAccess Foundation, Amsterdam, The Netherlands"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Rinke de Wit", 
        "givenName": "Tobias F", 
        "id": "sg:person.01304150161.09", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01304150161.09"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1478-7547-4-5", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001975102", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/1478-7547-4-5"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1478-4491-11-37", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002091429", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/1478-4491-11-37"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/intqhc/mzp002", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003222595"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/00036840210167183", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003812142"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1472-698x-8-11", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004124417", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-698x-8-11"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140109", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007225139"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140109", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007225139"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1472-698x-9-20", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014997947", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-698x-9-20"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/2191-1991-3-6", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021096201", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/2191-1991-3-6"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/2191-1991-2-13", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025174040", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/2191-1991-2-13"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1478-7547-12-9", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042724735", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/1478-7547-12-9"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/0-387-25895-7_6", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044007925", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/0-387-25895-7_6"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-2217(78)90138-8", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046333076"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-2217(78)90138-8", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046333076"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1472-6963-7-58", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047229525", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-7-58"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142389", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050757309"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142389", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050757309"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1478-7547-3-9", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052337359", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/1478-7547-3-9"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/hec.751", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052622979"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.2307/3006005", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070167070"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v1n2p50", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1072947193"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075287467", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077901136", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2015-12", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2015-12-01", 
    "description": "BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in a number of health outcome indicators partly due to the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), Ghana is unlikely to attain all its health-related millennium development goals before the end of 2015. Inefficient use of available limited resources has been cited as a contributory factor for this predicament. This study sought to explore efficiency levels of NHIS-accredited private and public health facilities; ascertain factors that account for differences in efficiency and determine the association between quality care and efficiency levels.\nMETHODS: The study is a cross-sectional survey of NHIS-accredited primary health facilities (n\u00a0=\u00a064) in two regions in southern Ghana. Data Envelopment Analysis was used to estimate technical efficiency of sampled health facilities while Tobit regression was employed to predict factors associated with efficiency levels. Spearman correlation test was performed to determine the association between quality care and efficiency.\nRESULTS: Overall, 20 out of the 64 health facilities (31\u00a0%) were optimally efficient relative to their peers. Out of the 20 efficient facilities, 10 (50\u00a0%) were Public/government\u00a0owned facilities; 8 (40\u00a0%) were Private-for-profit facilities and 2 (10\u00a0%) were Private-not-for-profit/Mission facilities. Mission (Coef.\u00a0=\u00a052.1; p\u00a0=\u00a00.000) and Public (Coef.\u00a0=\u00a042.9; p\u00a0=\u00a00.002) facilities located in the Western region (predominantly rural) had higher odds of attaining the 100\u00a0% technical efficiency benchmark than those located in the Greater Accra region (largely urban). No significant association was found between technical efficiency scores of health facilities and many technical quality care proxies, except in overall quality score per the NHIS accreditation data (Coef.\u00a0=\u00a0-0.3158; p\u00a0<\u00a00.05) and SafeCare Essentials quality score on environmental safety for staff and patients (Coef.\u00a0=\u00a0-0.2764; p\u00a0<\u00a00.05) where the association was negative.\nCONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest some level of wastage of health resources in many healthcare facilities, especially those located in urban areas. The Ministry of Health and relevant stakeholders should undertake more effective need analysis to inform resource allocation, distribution and capacity building to promote efficient utilization of limited resources without compromising quality care standards.", 
    "genre": "research_article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s12962-015-0050-z", 
    "inLanguage": [
      "en"
    ], 
    "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
    "isFundedItemOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.4137117", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }
    ], 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1032048", 
        "issn": [
          "1478-7547"
        ], 
        "name": "Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "1", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "13"
      }
    ], 
    "name": "Efficiency of private and public primary health facilities accredited by the National Health Insurance Authority in Ghana", 
    "pagination": "23", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "readcube_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "ef418e45a0921bed340270164d95f455d0b4219f8122761e5576e71b93d443a6"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "26709349"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "101170476"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1186/s12962-015-0050-z"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1050224745"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1186/s12962-015-0050-z", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050224745"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T01:14", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8697_00000551.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "http://link.springer.com/10.1186%2Fs12962-015-0050-z"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12962-015-0050-z'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12962-015-0050-z'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12962-015-0050-z'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12962-015-0050-z'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

187 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      49 URIs      21 LITERALS      9 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1186/s12962-015-0050-z schema:about anzsrc-for:14
2 anzsrc-for:1402
3 schema:author Neff18cfbf38b4fbfb88881386407530e
4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/0-387-25895-7_6
5 sg:pub.10.1186/1472-6963-7-58
6 sg:pub.10.1186/1472-698x-8-11
7 sg:pub.10.1186/1472-698x-9-20
8 sg:pub.10.1186/1478-4491-11-37
9 sg:pub.10.1186/1478-7547-12-9
10 sg:pub.10.1186/1478-7547-3-9
11 sg:pub.10.1186/1478-7547-4-5
12 sg:pub.10.1186/2191-1991-2-13
13 sg:pub.10.1186/2191-1991-3-6
14 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075287467
15 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077901136
16 https://doi.org/10.1002/hec.751
17 https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-2217(78)90138-8
18 https://doi.org/10.1080/00036840210167183
19 https://doi.org/10.1093/intqhc/mzp002
20 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140109
21 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142389
22 https://doi.org/10.2307/3006005
23 https://doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v1n2p50
24 schema:datePublished 2015-12
25 schema:datePublishedReg 2015-12-01
26 schema:description BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in a number of health outcome indicators partly due to the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), Ghana is unlikely to attain all its health-related millennium development goals before the end of 2015. Inefficient use of available limited resources has been cited as a contributory factor for this predicament. This study sought to explore efficiency levels of NHIS-accredited private and public health facilities; ascertain factors that account for differences in efficiency and determine the association between quality care and efficiency levels. METHODS: The study is a cross-sectional survey of NHIS-accredited primary health facilities (n = 64) in two regions in southern Ghana. Data Envelopment Analysis was used to estimate technical efficiency of sampled health facilities while Tobit regression was employed to predict factors associated with efficiency levels. Spearman correlation test was performed to determine the association between quality care and efficiency. RESULTS: Overall, 20 out of the 64 health facilities (31 %) were optimally efficient relative to their peers. Out of the 20 efficient facilities, 10 (50 %) were Public/government owned facilities; 8 (40 %) were Private-for-profit facilities and 2 (10 %) were Private-not-for-profit/Mission facilities. Mission (Coef. = 52.1; p = 0.000) and Public (Coef. = 42.9; p = 0.002) facilities located in the Western region (predominantly rural) had higher odds of attaining the 100 % technical efficiency benchmark than those located in the Greater Accra region (largely urban). No significant association was found between technical efficiency scores of health facilities and many technical quality care proxies, except in overall quality score per the NHIS accreditation data (Coef. = -0.3158; p < 0.05) and SafeCare Essentials quality score on environmental safety for staff and patients (Coef. = -0.2764; p < 0.05) where the association was negative. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest some level of wastage of health resources in many healthcare facilities, especially those located in urban areas. The Ministry of Health and relevant stakeholders should undertake more effective need analysis to inform resource allocation, distribution and capacity building to promote efficient utilization of limited resources without compromising quality care standards.
27 schema:genre research_article
28 schema:inLanguage en
29 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
30 schema:isPartOf N8d6e9abe286b402d8b1b1f4beddfe769
31 Naf92ebfb0eed41f596aba3a07a8e89dd
32 sg:journal.1032048
33 schema:name Efficiency of private and public primary health facilities accredited by the National Health Insurance Authority in Ghana
34 schema:pagination 23
35 schema:productId N818716cc59f640b094482528926e91fc
36 N8a873a9d420149ecafb460a11127e340
37 N96227c4ec53e423cb14816151beeb0bb
38 Nce48d293f4134a8aa22cd348ae9617e1
39 Neef72b2c81de4a26a7955aba0a101528
40 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050224745
41 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12962-015-0050-z
42 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T01:14
43 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
44 schema:sdPublisher N4b366c18bc2e47439994d33a34a39b38
45 schema:url http://link.springer.com/10.1186%2Fs12962-015-0050-z
46 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
47 sgo:sdDataset articles
48 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
49 N2c2dced775974968874a89a4de310801 rdf:first sg:person.01304150161.09
50 rdf:rest rdf:nil
51 N3eba7b1bea0c40d4a306d5f8578bfb53 rdf:first sg:person.01361316314.19
52 rdf:rest Nca30a4c74ff544feae177bf42c7368fd
53 N4b366c18bc2e47439994d33a34a39b38 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
54 rdf:type schema:Organization
55 N7694c2db6a234007af5cb6c62887e88b rdf:first sg:person.01050323552.12
56 rdf:rest N3eba7b1bea0c40d4a306d5f8578bfb53
57 N818716cc59f640b094482528926e91fc schema:name pubmed_id
58 schema:value 26709349
59 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
60 N8a873a9d420149ecafb460a11127e340 schema:name doi
61 schema:value 10.1186/s12962-015-0050-z
62 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
63 N8d6e9abe286b402d8b1b1f4beddfe769 schema:volumeNumber 13
64 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
65 N96227c4ec53e423cb14816151beeb0bb schema:name dimensions_id
66 schema:value pub.1050224745
67 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
68 Naf92ebfb0eed41f596aba3a07a8e89dd schema:issueNumber 1
69 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
70 Nbb7769632fb34ca19913061e7d1fe420 rdf:first sg:person.01025106672.48
71 rdf:rest N7694c2db6a234007af5cb6c62887e88b
72 Nca30a4c74ff544feae177bf42c7368fd rdf:first sg:person.0721515426.39
73 rdf:rest N2c2dced775974968874a89a4de310801
74 Nce48d293f4134a8aa22cd348ae9617e1 schema:name readcube_id
75 schema:value ef418e45a0921bed340270164d95f455d0b4219f8122761e5576e71b93d443a6
76 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
77 Neef72b2c81de4a26a7955aba0a101528 schema:name nlm_unique_id
78 schema:value 101170476
79 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
80 Neff18cfbf38b4fbfb88881386407530e rdf:first sg:person.01313203114.56
81 rdf:rest Nbb7769632fb34ca19913061e7d1fe420
82 anzsrc-for:14 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
83 schema:name Economics
84 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
85 anzsrc-for:1402 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
86 schema:name Applied Economics
87 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
88 sg:grant.4137117 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1186/s12962-015-0050-z
89 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
90 sg:journal.1032048 schema:issn 1478-7547
91 schema:name Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation
92 rdf:type schema:Periodical
93 sg:person.01025106672.48 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8652.9
94 schema:familyName Nketiah-Amponsah
95 schema:givenName Edward
96 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01025106672.48
97 rdf:type schema:Person
98 sg:person.01050323552.12 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.415943.e
99 schema:familyName Akazili
100 schema:givenName James
101 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01050323552.12
102 rdf:type schema:Person
103 sg:person.01304150161.09 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.487140.e
104 schema:familyName Rinke de Wit
105 schema:givenName Tobias F
106 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01304150161.09
107 rdf:type schema:Person
108 sg:person.01313203114.56 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.7177.6
109 schema:familyName Alhassan
110 schema:givenName Robert Kaba
111 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01313203114.56
112 rdf:type schema:Person
113 sg:person.01361316314.19 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.487140.e
114 schema:familyName Spieker
115 schema:givenName Nicole
116 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01361316314.19
117 rdf:type schema:Person
118 sg:person.0721515426.39 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.462644.6
119 schema:familyName Arhinful
120 schema:givenName Daniel Kojo
121 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0721515426.39
122 rdf:type schema:Person
123 sg:pub.10.1007/0-387-25895-7_6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044007925
124 https://doi.org/10.1007/0-387-25895-7_6
125 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
126 sg:pub.10.1186/1472-6963-7-58 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047229525
127 https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-7-58
128 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
129 sg:pub.10.1186/1472-698x-8-11 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004124417
130 https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-698x-8-11
131 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
132 sg:pub.10.1186/1472-698x-9-20 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014997947
133 https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-698x-9-20
134 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
135 sg:pub.10.1186/1478-4491-11-37 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002091429
136 https://doi.org/10.1186/1478-4491-11-37
137 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
138 sg:pub.10.1186/1478-7547-12-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042724735
139 https://doi.org/10.1186/1478-7547-12-9
140 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
141 sg:pub.10.1186/1478-7547-3-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052337359
142 https://doi.org/10.1186/1478-7547-3-9
143 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
144 sg:pub.10.1186/1478-7547-4-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001975102
145 https://doi.org/10.1186/1478-7547-4-5
146 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
147 sg:pub.10.1186/2191-1991-2-13 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025174040
148 https://doi.org/10.1186/2191-1991-2-13
149 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
150 sg:pub.10.1186/2191-1991-3-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021096201
151 https://doi.org/10.1186/2191-1991-3-6
152 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
153 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075287467 schema:CreativeWork
154 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077901136 schema:CreativeWork
155 https://doi.org/10.1002/hec.751 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052622979
156 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
157 https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-2217(78)90138-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046333076
158 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
159 https://doi.org/10.1080/00036840210167183 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003812142
160 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
161 https://doi.org/10.1093/intqhc/mzp002 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003222595
162 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
163 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140109 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007225139
164 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
165 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142389 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050757309
166 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
167 https://doi.org/10.2307/3006005 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070167070
168 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
169 https://doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v1n2p50 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1072947193
170 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
171 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.415943.e schema:alternateName Navrongo Health Research Centre
172 schema:name Health Research Unit of Ghana Health Service, Navrongo Health Research Centre, Navrongo, Ghana
173 rdf:type schema:Organization
174 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.462644.6 schema:alternateName Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research
175 schema:name Department of Epidemiology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research (NMIMR), University of Ghana, Legon, P.O Box LG 583, Accra, Ghana
176 rdf:type schema:Organization
177 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.487140.e schema:alternateName PharmAccess Group
178 schema:name Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
179 PharmAccess Foundation, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
180 rdf:type schema:Organization
181 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.7177.6 schema:alternateName University of Amsterdam
182 schema:name Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
183 Department of Epidemiology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research (NMIMR), University of Ghana, Legon, P.O Box LG 583, Accra, Ghana
184 rdf:type schema:Organization
185 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8652.9 schema:alternateName University of Ghana
186 schema:name Department of Economics, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana
187 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...