Effect of microcapsules of chia oil on Ω-3 fatty acids, antioxidant characteristics and oxidative stability of butter View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2020-01-16

AUTHORS

Rahman Ullah, Muhammad Nadeem, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Kamran Khan, Zarina Mushtaq, Muhammad Asif, Ahmad Din

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ω-3 fatty acids perform several therapeutic functions in the body, however, their applications are limited due to the inferior oxidative stability. To improve the oxidative stability and release properties of Ω-3 fatty acids, microencapsulation is performed. Butter is a good source of fat-soluble vitamins and antioxidant systems however, it is not a good source of Ω-3 fatty acids. Supplementation of butter with microcapsules of vegetable oils rich in Ω-3 fatty acids is not reported in literature. METHODS: Microcapsules of chia oil (MCO) were prepared using chitosan as encapsulating material by spray drying at lower temperature. Unsalted butter prepared from cultured cream using Lactococcus lactis ssp. Lactis at 21 °C for 16 Hrs. Cream was churned at 12 °C and microcapsules of chia oil were added to the butter during the working stage at four different concentrations i.e. 2, 4, 6 and 8% (T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively). Butter without supplementation of MCO were kept as control. Butter samples were stored for 90 days at -10 °C. Butter composition, antioxidant capacity, fatty acid profile, induction period, free fatty acids, peroxide value and sensory evaluation were performed at 0, 45 and 90 days of storage. RESULTS: Addition of MCO in butter did not have any effect on standards of identity of butter. Microencapsulation had no effect on fatty acid profile of microcapsules of chia oil. Concentration of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 0.49, 4.29, 8.41, 13.21 and 17.44%, respectively. Concentration of ALA in fresh and 90 days stored butter samples were 17.44 and 17.11%, respectively. After 90 days of storage, loss of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were 0.07%, 0.05 and 0.03%, respectively. At 0, 45 and 90 days of storage, 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyle (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of free chia oil was 39.81, 71.22 and 62.18%, respectively. However, microcapsules of chia oil had superior antioxidant activity. DPPH free radical scavenging activity of microcapsules at 0, 45 and 90 days of storage was 36.51, 36.43 and 35.96%, respectively (p > 0.05). Total antioxidant capacity of microcapsules at 0, 45 and 90 days of storage was 70.53, 69.88 and 68.52%, respectively (p > 0.05). It was recorded that induction period of free chia oil and microcapsules was only 2.86 h and 8.55 h. Among the butter samples, control revealed the lowest induction period. While, induction period of experimental samples was not different from each other. Peroxide value and free fatty acids of the butter samples at the end of storage period (90 days) was less than the European Union standards limit (10MeqO2/kg and 0.2%). Sensory characteristics of experimental samples were similar to the control. MCO can be added in butter to improve its functional value. CONCLUSION: Concentration of Ω-3 fatty acids in butter up to 8% can be increased through microcapsules of chia oil with reasonable oxidative stability and no effect on sensory characteristics. More... »

PAGES

10

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Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12944-020-1190-5

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12944-020-1190-5

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1124132396

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31948460


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31 schema:description BACKGROUND: Ω-3 fatty acids perform several therapeutic functions in the body, however, their applications are limited due to the inferior oxidative stability. To improve the oxidative stability and release properties of Ω-3 fatty acids, microencapsulation is performed. Butter is a good source of fat-soluble vitamins and antioxidant systems however, it is not a good source of Ω-3 fatty acids. Supplementation of butter with microcapsules of vegetable oils rich in Ω-3 fatty acids is not reported in literature. METHODS: Microcapsules of chia oil (MCO) were prepared using chitosan as encapsulating material by spray drying at lower temperature. Unsalted butter prepared from cultured cream using Lactococcus lactis ssp. Lactis at 21 °C for 16 Hrs. Cream was churned at 12 °C and microcapsules of chia oil were added to the butter during the working stage at four different concentrations i.e. 2, 4, 6 and 8% (T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub>, T<sub>3</sub> and T<sub>4</sub>, respectively). Butter without supplementation of MCO were kept as control. Butter samples were stored for 90 days at -10 °C. Butter composition, antioxidant capacity, fatty acid profile, induction period, free fatty acids, peroxide value and sensory evaluation were performed at 0, 45 and 90 days of storage. RESULTS: Addition of MCO in butter did not have any effect on standards of identity of butter. Microencapsulation had no effect on fatty acid profile of microcapsules of chia oil. Concentration of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in control, T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub>, T<sub>3</sub> and T<sub>4</sub> were 0.49, 4.29, 8.41, 13.21 and 17.44%, respectively. Concentration of ALA in fresh and 90 days stored butter samples were 17.44 and 17.11%, respectively. After 90 days of storage, loss of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were 0.07%, 0.05 and 0.03%, respectively. At 0, 45 and 90 days of storage, 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyle (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of free chia oil was 39.81, 71.22 and 62.18%, respectively. However, microcapsules of chia oil had superior antioxidant activity. DPPH free radical scavenging activity of microcapsules at 0, 45 and 90 days of storage was 36.51, 36.43 and 35.96%, respectively (p &gt; 0.05). Total antioxidant capacity of microcapsules at 0, 45 and 90 days of storage was 70.53, 69.88 and 68.52%, respectively (p &gt; 0.05). It was recorded that induction period of free chia oil and microcapsules was only 2.86 h and 8.55 h. Among the butter samples, control revealed the lowest induction period. While, induction period of experimental samples was not different from each other. Peroxide value and free fatty acids of the butter samples at the end of storage period (90 days) was less than the European Union standards limit (10MeqO<sub>2</sub>/kg and 0.2%). Sensory characteristics of experimental samples were similar to the control. MCO can be added in butter to improve its functional value. CONCLUSION: Concentration of Ω-3 fatty acids in butter up to 8% can be increased through microcapsules of chia oil with reasonable oxidative stability and no effect on sensory characteristics.
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38 schema:keywords Addition of MCO
39 European Union standards limit
40 Lactococcus lactis ssp
41 MCO
42 Supplementation of butter
43 Union standards limit
44 acid
45 acid profile
46 activity
47 addition
48 alpha-linolenic acid
49 antioxidant activity
50 antioxidant capacity
51 antioxidant characteristics
52 antioxidant system
53 applications
54 body
55 butter
56 butter composition
57 butter samples
58 capacity
59 characteristics
60 chia oil
61 composition
62 concentration
63 concentrations of ALA
64 control
65 cream
66 cultured cream
67 days
68 days of storage
69 different concentrations
70 docosahexaenoic acid
71 docosapentaenoic acid
72 effect
73 effect of microcapsules
74 eicosapentaenoic acid
75 encapsulating materials
76 end
77 evaluation
78 experimental samples
79 fat-soluble vitamins
80 fatty acid profile
81 fatty acids
82 free chia oil
83 free fatty acids
84 free radical scavenging activity
85 function
86 functional value
87 good source
88 hr
89 identity
90 induction period
91 inferior oxidative stability
92 lactis
93 lactis ssp
94 limit
95 literature
96 loss
97 low temperature
98 lowest induction period
99 materials
100 microcapsules
101 microencapsulation
102 oil
103 oxidative stability
104 period
105 profile
106 properties
107 radical scavenging activity
108 reasonable oxidative stability
109 samples
110 scavenging activity
111 sensory characteristics
112 sensory evaluation
113 source
114 spray
115 ssp
116 stability
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118 standard limits
119 standards
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121 storage
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123 superior antioxidant activity
124 supplementation
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126 system
127 temperature
128 therapeutic functions
129 total antioxidant capacity
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