Predictors of Beta-Hexachlorocyclohexane blood levels among people living close to a chemical plant and an illegal dumping site View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2020-01-22

AUTHORS

S. Narduzzi, F. Fantini, F. Blasetti, P. Rantakokko, H. Kiviranta, F. Forastiere, P. Michelozzi, D. Porta

ABSTRACT

BackgroundHexachlorocyclohexane is a synthetic chemical with several isomers, including β-Hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH). In 2005, a large contamination of crude milk from some bovine farms along the Sacco River (Central Italy) was detected; it was related to the illegal disposal of large quantities of processing waste by a chemical industry of the area. A biomonitoring study, conducted in 2007 on a sample of the residing population, found high values of β-HCH in people living close to the river. These results led to the establishment of a clinical and epidemiological surveillance program on all the exposed population.The aim of the study was to evaluate the determinants of β-HCH blood levels in people living within 1 Km of the Sacco River, focusing on the role of specific foods, body mass index and risk factors not yet identified.MethodsThe program involved all people living within 1 km of the river. A descriptive analysis of β-HCH blood levels was done in relation to the potential determinants including specific foods. Regression analysis was used to study the association between potential determinants and (natural log) β-HCH haematic concentration. The results were expressed as geometric mean ratios (GMR). To take into account similarities within the families we adjusted for family clustering.ResultsA total of 602 subjects (87.2%) agreed to participate in the surveillance. The β-HCH geometric mean serum concentration was 72 ng/g lipid. The regression analysis showed that being female (GMR: 1.32, 95%CI: 1.14–1.53), elderly (GMR> 70yy: 10.04, 95%CI: 6.65–15.15), obese (GMR: 1.63, 95%CI: 1.28–2.08), eating food of local/own production (GMR 1.47, 95%CI: 1.15–1.88) and using water from private wells (GMRdrink:1.47, 95%CI: 1.00–2.14 and GMRwash: 1.48, 95%CI: 1.17–1.87) were associated with higher β-HCH values. There was inverse association with breastfeeding (GMR: 0.64, 95%CI: 0.47–0.86). The focus on specific foods showed that the most important factors were eggs and beef.ConclusionsThe study indicated a greater contamination for older people, and those drinking and washing with water from private wells and consuming locally produced food, especially eggs and beef. More... »

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9

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12940-020-0562-7

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12940-020-0562-7

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1124234721

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31969154


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34 schema:description BackgroundHexachlorocyclohexane is a synthetic chemical with several isomers, including β-Hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH). In 2005, a large contamination of crude milk from some bovine farms along the Sacco River (Central Italy) was detected; it was related to the illegal disposal of large quantities of processing waste by a chemical industry of the area. A biomonitoring study, conducted in 2007 on a sample of the residing population, found high values of β-HCH in people living close to the river. These results led to the establishment of a clinical and epidemiological surveillance program on all the exposed population.The aim of the study was to evaluate the determinants of β-HCH blood levels in people living within 1 Km of the Sacco River, focusing on the role of specific foods, body mass index and risk factors not yet identified.MethodsThe program involved all people living within 1 km of the river. A descriptive analysis of β-HCH blood levels was done in relation to the potential determinants including specific foods. Regression analysis was used to study the association between potential determinants and (natural log) β-HCH haematic concentration. The results were expressed as geometric mean ratios (GMR). To take into account similarities within the families we adjusted for family clustering.ResultsA total of 602 subjects (87.2%) agreed to participate in the surveillance. The β-HCH geometric mean serum concentration was 72 ng/g lipid. The regression analysis showed that being female (GMR: 1.32, 95%CI: 1.14–1.53), elderly (GMR> 70yy: 10.04, 95%CI: 6.65–15.15), obese (GMR: 1.63, 95%CI: 1.28–2.08), eating food of local/own production (GMR 1.47, 95%CI: 1.15–1.88) and using water from private wells (GMRdrink:1.47, 95%CI: 1.00–2.14 and GMRwash: 1.48, 95%CI: 1.17–1.87) were associated with higher β-HCH values. There was inverse association with breastfeeding (GMR: 0.64, 95%CI: 0.47–0.86). The focus on specific foods showed that the most important factors were eggs and beef.ConclusionsThe study indicated a greater contamination for older people, and those drinking and washing with water from private wells and consuming locally produced food, especially eggs and beef.
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42 Km
43 MethodsThe program
44 ResultsA total
45 River
46 Sacco River
47 account similarities
48 aim
49 analysis
50 area
51 association
52 beef
53 biomonitoring studies
54 blood levels
55 body mass index
56 bovine farms
57 breastfeeding
58 chemical industry
59 chemical plants
60 chemicals
61 clustering
62 concentration
63 contamination
64 crude milk
65 descriptive analysis
66 determinants
67 disposal
68 drinking
69 eggs
70 epidemiological surveillance program
71 establishment
72 factors
73 family
74 family clustering
75 farms
76 focus
77 food
78 geometric mean ratios
79 geometric mean serum concentrations
80 greater contamination
81 higher values
82 illegal disposal
83 important factor
84 index
85 industry
86 inverse association
87 isomers
88 large contamination
89 large quantities
90 levels
91 lipids
92 mass index
93 mean ratio
94 mean serum concentration
95 milk
96 obese
97 older people
98 own production
99 people
100 plants
101 population
102 potential determinants
103 predictors
104 private wells
105 production
106 program
107 quantity
108 ratio
109 regression analysis
110 relation
111 results
112 risk factors
113 role
114 samples
115 serum concentrations
116 similarity
117 sites
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123 synthetic chemicals
124 total
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