Association between levels of persistent organic pollutants in adipose tissue and cryptorchidism in early childhood: a case–control study View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2015-09-24

AUTHORS

Jaakko J. Koskenniemi, Helena E. Virtanen, Hannu Kiviranta, Ida N. Damgaard, Jaakko Matomäki, Jørgen M. Thorup, Timo Hurme, Niels E. Skakkebaek, Katharina M. Main, Jorma Toppari

ABSTRACT

BackgroundCongenital cryptorchidism, i.e. failure of the testicular descent to the bottom of the scrotum, is a common birth defect. The evidence from epidemiological, wildlife, and animal studies suggests that exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals during fetal development may play a role in its pathogenesis. We aimed to assess the association between cryptorchidism and prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs).MethodsWe conducted a case–control study consisting of 44 cryptorchid cases, and 38 controls operated for inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, or hydrocele at the Turku University Hospital or Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen in 2002–2006. During the operation a subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy was taken. Samples were analysed for 37 PCBs, 17 PCDD/Fs and 14 PBDEs by gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Chemical concentrations were adjusted for postnatal variation introduced by differences in duration of breastfeeding, age at the operation, and country of origin with a multiple linear regression. Association between adjusted and unadjusted chemical concentrations and the risk of cryptorchidism were analysed with logistic regression to get an estimate for odds ratio (OR) of cryptorchidism per multiplication of chemical concentrations with ca. 2.71 (Napier’s constant).ResultsTotal-TEq i.e. the WHO-recommended 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalent quantity of 17 dioxins and 12 dioxin-like PCBs and sum of PCDD/Fs were positively associated with cryptorchidism [OR 3.21 (95 % CI 1.29–9.09), OR 3.69 (95 % CI 1.45–10.9), respectively], when adjusting for country of origin, the duration the child was breastfed, and age at operation. The association between the sum of PCBs and cryptorchidism was close to significant [OR 1.92 (95 % CI 0.98–4.01)], whereas the association between the sum of PBDEs and cryptorchidism was not [OR 0.86 (95 % CI 0.47–1.54)]. There were no associations between unadjusted chemical concentrations and the risk of cryptorchidism.ConclusionsPrenatal exposure to PCDD/Fs and PCDD/F-like PCBs may be associated with increased risk for cryptorchidism. Our finding does not exclude the possibility of an association between the exposure to PBDEs and cryptorchidism. More... »

PAGES

78

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12940-015-0065-0

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12940-015-0065-0

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049884272

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26403566


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31 schema:description BackgroundCongenital cryptorchidism, i.e. failure of the testicular descent to the bottom of the scrotum, is a common birth defect. The evidence from epidemiological, wildlife, and animal studies suggests that exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals during fetal development may play a role in its pathogenesis. We aimed to assess the association between cryptorchidism and prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs).MethodsWe conducted a case–control study consisting of 44 cryptorchid cases, and 38 controls operated for inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, or hydrocele at the Turku University Hospital or Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen in 2002–2006. During the operation a subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy was taken. Samples were analysed for 37 PCBs, 17 PCDD/Fs and 14 PBDEs by gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Chemical concentrations were adjusted for postnatal variation introduced by differences in duration of breastfeeding, age at the operation, and country of origin with a multiple linear regression. Association between adjusted and unadjusted chemical concentrations and the risk of cryptorchidism were analysed with logistic regression to get an estimate for odds ratio (OR) of cryptorchidism per multiplication of chemical concentrations with ca. 2.71 (Napier’s constant).ResultsTotal-TEq i.e. the WHO-recommended 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalent quantity of 17 dioxins and 12 dioxin-like PCBs and sum of PCDD/Fs were positively associated with cryptorchidism [OR 3.21 (95 % CI 1.29–9.09), OR 3.69 (95 % CI 1.45–10.9), respectively], when adjusting for country of origin, the duration the child was breastfed, and age at operation. The association between the sum of PCBs and cryptorchidism was close to significant [OR 1.92 (95 % CI 0.98–4.01)], whereas the association between the sum of PBDEs and cryptorchidism was not [OR 0.86 (95 % CI 0.47–1.54)]. There were no associations between unadjusted chemical concentrations and the risk of cryptorchidism.ConclusionsPrenatal exposure to PCDD/Fs and PCDD/F-like PCBs may be associated with increased risk for cryptorchidism. Our finding does not exclude the possibility of an association between the exposure to PBDEs and cryptorchidism.
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39 Copenhagen
40 FS
41 MethodsWe
42 PBDEs
43 PCBs
44 PCDD/F
45 PCDD/Fs
46 Rigshospitalet
47 Turku University Hospital
48 University Hospital
49 WHO
50 adipose tissue
51 adipose tissue biopsies
52 age
53 animal studies
54 association
55 biopsy
56 biphenyls
57 birth defects
58 bottom
59 breastfeeding
60 case-control study
61 cases
62 chemical concentrations
63 chemicals
64 childhood
65 children
66 common birth defects
67 concentration
68 control
69 countries
70 country of origin
71 cryptorchid cases
72 cryptorchidism
73 defects
74 descent
75 development
76 differences
77 dioxin-like PCBs
78 dioxins
79 diphenyl ethers
80 duration
81 duration of breastfeeding
82 early childhood
83 endocrine
84 equivalent quantity
85 estimates
86 ether
87 evidence
88 exposure
89 failure
90 fetal development
91 findings
92 furan
93 gas
94 hernia
95 hospital
96 i.
97 inguinal hernia
98 levels
99 like PCBs
100 linear regression
101 logistic regression
102 mass spectrometry
103 mixture
104 mixtures of endocrine
105 multiple linear regression
106 multiplication
107 odds ratio
108 operation
109 organic pollutants
110 origin
111 pathogenesis
112 persistent organic pollutants
113 pollutants
114 possibility
115 postnatal variation
116 prenatal exposure
117 quantity
118 ratio
119 regression
120 resolution mass spectrometry
121 risk
122 risk of cryptorchidism
123 role
124 samples
125 scrotum
126 spectrometry
127 study
128 subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies
129 sum
130 sum of PBDEs
131 sum of PCBs
132 testicular descent
133 tissue
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135 umbilical hernia
136 variation
137 wildlife
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