CYP2D6 activity and the risk of recurrence of Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Brazilian Amazon: a prospective cohort study View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2018-12

AUTHORS

Larissa W. Brasil, Fernanda Rodrigues-Soares, Ana B. Santoro, Anne C. G. Almeida, Andrea Kühn, Rajendranath Ramasawmy, Marcus V. G. Lacerda, Wuelton M. Monteiro, Guilherme Suarez-Kurtz

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: CYP2D6 pathway mediates the activation of primaquine into active metabolite(s) in hepatocytes. CYP2D6 is highly polymorphic, encoding CYP2D6 isoforms with normal, reduced, null or increased activity. It is hypothesized that Plasmodium vivax malaria patients with defective CYP2D6 function would be at increased risk for primaquine failure to prevent recurrence. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of CYP2D6 polymorphisms and inferred CYP2D6 phenotypes with malaria recurrence in patients from the Western Brazilian Amazon, following chloroquine/primaquine combined therapy. METHODS: The prospective cohort consisted of P. vivax malaria patients who were followed for 6 months after completion of the chloroquine/primaquine therapy. Recurrence was defined as one or more malaria episodes, 28-180 days after the initial episode. Genotyping for nine CYP2D6 SNPs and copy number variation was performed using TaqMan assays in a Fast 7500 Real-Time System. CYP2D6 star alleles (haplotypes), diplotypes and CYP2D6 phenotypes were inferred, and the activity score system was used to define the functionality of the CYP2D6 diplotypes. CYP2D6 activity scores (AS) were dichotomized at ≤ 1 (gPM, gIM and gNM-S phenotypes) and ≥ 1.5 (gNM-F and gUM phenotypes). RESULTS: Genotyping was successfully performed in 190 patients (44 with recurrence and 146 without recurrences). Recurrence incidence was higher in individuals presenting reduced activity CYP2D6 phenotypes (adjusted relative risk = 1.89, 95% CI 1.01-3.70; p = 0.049). Attributable risk and population attributable fraction were 11.5 and 9.9%, respectively. The time elapsed from the first P. vivax malaria episode until the recurrence did not differ between patients with AS of ≤ 1 versus ≥ 1.5 (p = 0.917). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that CYP2D6 polymorphisms are associated with increased risk of recurrence of vivax malaria, following chloroquine-primaquine combined therapy. This association is interpreted as the result of reduced conversion of primaquine into its active metabolites in patients with reduced CYP2D6 enzymatic activity. More... »

PAGES

57

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12936-017-2139-7

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-017-2139-7

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1100748701

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29390987


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28 schema:description BACKGROUND: CYP2D6 pathway mediates the activation of primaquine into active metabolite(s) in hepatocytes. CYP2D6 is highly polymorphic, encoding CYP2D6 isoforms with normal, reduced, null or increased activity. It is hypothesized that Plasmodium vivax malaria patients with defective CYP2D6 function would be at increased risk for primaquine failure to prevent recurrence. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of CYP2D6 polymorphisms and inferred CYP2D6 phenotypes with malaria recurrence in patients from the Western Brazilian Amazon, following chloroquine/primaquine combined therapy. METHODS: The prospective cohort consisted of P. vivax malaria patients who were followed for 6 months after completion of the chloroquine/primaquine therapy. Recurrence was defined as one or more malaria episodes, 28-180 days after the initial episode. Genotyping for nine CYP2D6 SNPs and copy number variation was performed using TaqMan assays in a Fast 7500 Real-Time System. CYP2D6 star alleles (haplotypes), diplotypes and CYP2D6 phenotypes were inferred, and the activity score system was used to define the functionality of the CYP2D6 diplotypes. CYP2D6 activity scores (AS) were dichotomized at ≤ 1 (gPM, gIM and gNM-S phenotypes) and ≥ 1.5 (gNM-F and gUM phenotypes). RESULTS: Genotyping was successfully performed in 190 patients (44 with recurrence and 146 without recurrences). Recurrence incidence was higher in individuals presenting reduced activity CYP2D6 phenotypes (adjusted relative risk = 1.89, 95% CI 1.01-3.70; p = 0.049). Attributable risk and population attributable fraction were 11.5 and 9.9%, respectively. The time elapsed from the first P. vivax malaria episode until the recurrence did not differ between patients with AS of ≤ 1 versus ≥ 1.5 (p = 0.917). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that CYP2D6 polymorphisms are associated with increased risk of recurrence of vivax malaria, following chloroquine-primaquine combined therapy. This association is interpreted as the result of reduced conversion of primaquine into its active metabolites in patients with reduced CYP2D6 enzymatic activity.
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