Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and non-P. falciparum infections in a highland district in Ghana, and the influence of HIV and ... View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2017-04-24

AUTHORS

Ewurama D. A. Owusu, Charles A. Brown, Martin P. Grobusch, Petra Mens

ABSTRACT

BackgroundIn the past two decades, there has been a reported decline in malaria in Ghana and the rest of the world; yet it remains the number one cause of mortality and morbidity. Human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) and sickle cell disease (SCD) share a common geographical space with malaria in sub-Saharan Africa and an interaction between these three conditions has been suggested. This study determined the Plasmodium falciparum and non-P. falciparum status of symptomatic and non-symptomatic residents of Mpraeso in the highlands of Kwahu-South district of Ghana based on evidence of current national decline. The influence of HIV and SCD on malaria was also determined.MethodsParticipants were 354 symptomatic patients visiting the Kwahu Government Hospital and 360 asymptomatic residents of the district capital. This cross-sectional study was conducted during the minor rainy season (October–December 2014). Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT), blood film microscopy and real-time polymerase chain reaction assessment of blood were done. Participants who tested positive with RDT were treated with artemisinin-based combination therapy; and assessment of venous blood was repeated 7 days after treatment. HIV screening and haemoglobin genotyping was done. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the influence of SCD and HIV.ResultsPlasmodium falciparum was prevalent at 124/142 (87.3%). Plasmodium malariae was the only non-falciparum species detected at 18/142 (12.7%). HIV and SCD did not significantly increase odds of malaria infection. However, the use of ITN and recent anti-malarial intake significantly decreased the odds of being malaria infected by 0.45-fold and 0.46-fold respectively.ConclusionPlasmodium falciparum and P. malariae infection are the prevailing species in the study area; albeit varying from the national average. HIV and SCD were not associated with the risk of having malaria. More... »

PAGES

167

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    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12936-017-1823-y

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    http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-017-1823-y

    DIMENSIONS

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    PUBMED

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    38 schema:description BackgroundIn the past two decades, there has been a reported decline in malaria in Ghana and the rest of the world; yet it remains the number one cause of mortality and morbidity. Human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) and sickle cell disease (SCD) share a common geographical space with malaria in sub-Saharan Africa and an interaction between these three conditions has been suggested. This study determined the Plasmodium falciparum and non-P. falciparum status of symptomatic and non-symptomatic residents of Mpraeso in the highlands of Kwahu-South district of Ghana based on evidence of current national decline. The influence of HIV and SCD on malaria was also determined.MethodsParticipants were 354 symptomatic patients visiting the Kwahu Government Hospital and 360 asymptomatic residents of the district capital. This cross-sectional study was conducted during the minor rainy season (October–December 2014). Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT), blood film microscopy and real-time polymerase chain reaction assessment of blood were done. Participants who tested positive with RDT were treated with artemisinin-based combination therapy; and assessment of venous blood was repeated 7 days after treatment. HIV screening and haemoglobin genotyping was done. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the influence of SCD and HIV.ResultsPlasmodium falciparum was prevalent at 124/142 (87.3%). Plasmodium malariae was the only non-falciparum species detected at 18/142 (12.7%). HIV and SCD did not significantly increase odds of malaria infection. However, the use of ITN and recent anti-malarial intake significantly decreased the odds of being malaria infected by 0.45-fold and 0.46-fold respectively.ConclusionPlasmodium falciparum and P. malariae infection are the prevailing species in the study area; albeit varying from the national average. HIV and SCD were not associated with the risk of having malaria.
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    45 BackgroundIn
    46 Ghana
    47 HIV screening
    48 ITNs
    49 MethodsParticipants
    50 P. malariae infection
    51 Plasmodium falciparum
    52 Plasmodium malariae
    53 Reaction Assessment
    54 Saharan Africa
    55 analysis
    56 area
    57 artemisinin-based combination therapy
    58 assessment
    59 asymptomatic residents
    60 average
    61 blood
    62 blood film microscopy
    63 capital
    64 cause
    65 cell disease
    66 combination therapy
    67 common geographical space
    68 conditions
    69 cross-sectional study
    70 days
    71 decades
    72 decline
    73 diagnostic tests
    74 disease
    75 district
    76 district capital
    77 evidence
    78 falciparum
    79 falciparum infection
    80 genotyping
    81 geographical space
    82 government hospitals
    83 haemoglobin genotyping
    84 highland districts
    85 highlands
    86 hospital
    87 human immuno-deficiency virus
    88 infection
    89 influence
    90 intake
    91 interaction
    92 malaria
    93 malaria infection
    94 malariae
    95 malariae infection
    96 microscopy
    97 minor rainy season
    98 morbidity
    99 mortality
    100 national average
    101 national decline
    102 non-falciparum species
    103 number one cause
    104 odds
    105 one cause
    106 participants
    107 patients
    108 polymerase chain reaction assessment
    109 prevalence
    110 rainy season
    111 rapid diagnostic tests
    112 real-time polymerase chain reaction assessments
    113 regression analysis
    114 residents
    115 rest
    116 risk
    117 screening
    118 season
    119 sickle cell disease
    120 space
    121 species
    122 status
    123 study
    124 study area
    125 symptomatic patients
    126 test
    127 therapy
    128 treatment
    129 use
    130 use of ITNs
    131 venous blood
    132 virus
    133 world
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