Urban-rural difference in satisfaction with primary healthcare services in Ghana View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2017-12

AUTHORS

Sanni Yaya, Ghose Bishwajit, Michael Ekholuenetale, Vaibhav Shah, Bernard Kadio, Ogochukwu Udenigwe

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding regional variation in patient satisfaction about healthcare systems (PHCs) on the quality of services provided is instrumental to improving quality and developing a patient-centered healthcare system by making it more responsive especially to the cultural aspects of health demands of a population. Reaching to the innovative National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana, surpassing several reforms in healthcare financing has been a milestone. However, the focus of NHIS is on the demand side of healthcare delivery. Studies focusing on the supply side of healthcare delivery, particularly the quality of service as perceived by the consumers are required. A growing number of studies have focused on regional differences of patient satisfaction in developed countries, however little research has been conducted concerning patient satisfaction in resource-poor settings like in Ghana. This study was therefore dedicated to examining the variation in satisfaction across rural and urban women in Ghana. METHODS: Data for the present study were obtained from the latest demographic and health survey in Ghana (GDHS 2014). Participants were 3576 women aged between 15 and 49 years living in non-institutional settings in Ghana. Summary statistics in percentages was used to present respondents' demographic, socioeconomic characteristics. Chi-square test was used to find association between urban-rural differentials with socio-economic variables. Multiple logistic regression was performed to measure the association of being satisfied with primary healthcare services with study variables. Model fitness was tested by pseudo R 2. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: The findings in this study revealed that about 57.1% were satisfied with primary health care services. The urban and rural areas reported 57.6 and 56.6% respectively which showed no statistically significant difference (z = 0.64; p = 0.523; 95%CI: -0.022, 0.043). Bivariate analysis showed that region, highest level of education, wealth index and type of facility were significantly associated with location of residence (urban-rural areas). After adjusting for confounding variables using logistic regression, geographical location became a key factor of satisfaction with primary healthcare services by location of residence. In urban areas, respondents from Greater Accra had 64% increase in the level of satisfaction when compared to those in Western region (OR = 1.64; 95CI: 1.09-2.47), Upper East had 75% increase in satisfaction compared to Western region (OR = 1.75; 95%CI: 1.08-2.84), Northern had an estimated 44% reduction in satisfaction when compared to Western region (OR = 0.56; 95%CI: 0.34-0.92). However, rural areas in Central, Volta, Eastern, Ashanti, Brong Aghafo, Northern and Upper West region had 51, 81, 69, 46, 62, 75 and 61% reduction respectively in the level of satisfaction when compared to Western region. CONCLUSIONS: Patient satisfaction is an important indicator of health outcomes. Quality of care and measuring level of patient satisfaction has been found to be the most useful tool to predict utilization and compliance. In fact, satisfied patients are more likely than unsatisfied ones to continue using health care services. Our results suggest that policymakers need to better understand the determinants of satisfaction with the health system and how different socio-demographic groups perceive satisfaction with healthcare services so as to address health inequalities between urban and rural areas within the same country. More... »

PAGES

776

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12913-017-2745-7

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-017-2745-7

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092982266

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29178876


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40 schema:description BACKGROUND: Understanding regional variation in patient satisfaction about healthcare systems (PHCs) on the quality of services provided is instrumental to improving quality and developing a patient-centered healthcare system by making it more responsive especially to the cultural aspects of health demands of a population. Reaching to the innovative National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana, surpassing several reforms in healthcare financing has been a milestone. However, the focus of NHIS is on the demand side of healthcare delivery. Studies focusing on the supply side of healthcare delivery, particularly the quality of service as perceived by the consumers are required. A growing number of studies have focused on regional differences of patient satisfaction in developed countries, however little research has been conducted concerning patient satisfaction in resource-poor settings like in Ghana. This study was therefore dedicated to examining the variation in satisfaction across rural and urban women in Ghana. METHODS: Data for the present study were obtained from the latest demographic and health survey in Ghana (GDHS 2014). Participants were 3576 women aged between 15 and 49 years living in non-institutional settings in Ghana. Summary statistics in percentages was used to present respondents' demographic, socioeconomic characteristics. Chi-square test was used to find association between urban-rural differentials with socio-economic variables. Multiple logistic regression was performed to measure the association of being satisfied with primary healthcare services with study variables. Model fitness was tested by pseudo R 2. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: The findings in this study revealed that about 57.1% were satisfied with primary health care services. The urban and rural areas reported 57.6 and 56.6% respectively which showed no statistically significant difference (z = 0.64; p = 0.523; 95%CI: -0.022, 0.043). Bivariate analysis showed that region, highest level of education, wealth index and type of facility were significantly associated with location of residence (urban-rural areas). After adjusting for confounding variables using logistic regression, geographical location became a key factor of satisfaction with primary healthcare services by location of residence. In urban areas, respondents from Greater Accra had 64% increase in the level of satisfaction when compared to those in Western region (OR = 1.64; 95CI: 1.09-2.47), Upper East had 75% increase in satisfaction compared to Western region (OR = 1.75; 95%CI: 1.08-2.84), Northern had an estimated 44% reduction in satisfaction when compared to Western region (OR = 0.56; 95%CI: 0.34-0.92). However, rural areas in Central, Volta, Eastern, Ashanti, Brong Aghafo, Northern and Upper West region had 51, 81, 69, 46, 62, 75 and 61% reduction respectively in the level of satisfaction when compared to Western region. CONCLUSIONS: Patient satisfaction is an important indicator of health outcomes. Quality of care and measuring level of patient satisfaction has been found to be the most useful tool to predict utilization and compliance. In fact, satisfied patients are more likely than unsatisfied ones to continue using health care services. Our results suggest that policymakers need to better understand the determinants of satisfaction with the health system and how different socio-demographic groups perceive satisfaction with healthcare services so as to address health inequalities between urban and rural areas within the same country.
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