Pooled PCR testing of dried blood spots for infant HIV diagnosis is cost efficient and accurate View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2019-12

AUTHORS

Cari van Schalkwyk, Jean Maritz, Gert U. van Zyl, Wolfgang Preiser, Alex Welte

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Access to qualitative HIV PCRs for early infant diagnosis (EID) is restricted in resource-limited settings due to cost. We hypothesised that pooling of dried blood spots (DBS), defined as combining multiple patient samples in a single test with subsequent individual testing of positive pools, would be cost saving while retaining clinical accuracy compared to individual patient testing. METHODS: Cost savings: A model was developed to simulate reagent and consumable cost saving of pooled compared to individual sample testing. Daily sample/result data of a public health laboratory in South Africa were used to illustrate outputs from the model. Samples were randomly allocated to pools and the process was repeated 1000 times to measure variation in estimates due to this stochasticity. Clinical accuracy: 1170 patient samples were tested using the Roche CAP/CTM Qual assay in pools of five 50 μl DBS. Negative pools comprised DBS previously tested in single reactions; positive pools included 1 positive sample. RESULTS: Pooling would have saved 64% of laboratory costs in 2015. The model is published as an R-based web tool, into which the user enters sample/positivity estimates and workflow management parameters to obtain cost saving estimates at an optimal pool size. Sensitivity of pooled testing was 98.8% overall; 100% for strongly reactive pools. One pool tested false positive which would not impact clinical specificity as individual patient testing is performed prior to reporting. CONCLUSIONS: Pooled PCR testing for EID remains accurate and dramatically reduces costs in settings with moderate to low prevalence rates and sufficient sample numbers. More... »

PAGES

136

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12879-019-3767-z

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3767-z

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1112070299

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30744605


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1117", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Public Health and Health Services", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/11", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Medical and Health Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Costs and Cost Analysis", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Early Diagnosis", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "HIV Infections", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Humans", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Infant", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Models, Economic", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Polymerase Chain Reaction", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Retrospective Studies", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Sensitivity and Specificity", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "South Africa", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Specimen Handling", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Stellenbosch University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11956.3a", 
          "name": [
            "The DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Epidemiological Modelling and Analysis (SACEMA), Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "van Schalkwyk", 
        "givenName": "Cari", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Stellenbosch University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11956.3a", 
          "name": [
            "Division of Medical Virology, Department of Pathology, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa", 
            "PathCare Reference Laboratory, Cape Town, South Africa"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Maritz", 
        "givenName": "Jean", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "National Health Laboratory Service", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.416657.7", 
          "name": [
            "Division of Medical Virology, Department of Pathology, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa", 
            "National Health Laboratory Service, Cape Town, South Africa"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "van Zyl", 
        "givenName": "Gert U.", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "National Health Laboratory Service", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.416657.7", 
          "name": [
            "Division of Medical Virology, Department of Pathology, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa", 
            "National Health Laboratory Service, Cape Town, South Africa"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Preiser", 
        "givenName": "Wolfgang", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Stellenbosch University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11956.3a", 
          "name": [
            "The DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Epidemiological Modelling and Analysis (SACEMA), Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Welte", 
        "givenName": "Alex", 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.23811", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007646273"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciq084", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013361693"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/qai.0b013e3182a61e63", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015119987"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/qai.0b013e3182a61e63", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015119987"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/qai.0000000000000307", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018236918"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/qai.0000000000000307", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018236918"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmoa040085", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026422109"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2011.12.002", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026736626"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmoa0800971", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043296298"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2019-12", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2019-12-01", 
    "description": "BACKGROUND: Access to qualitative HIV PCRs for early infant diagnosis (EID) is restricted in resource-limited settings due to cost. We hypothesised that pooling of dried blood spots (DBS), defined as combining multiple patient samples in a single test with subsequent individual testing of positive pools, would be cost saving while retaining clinical accuracy compared to individual patient testing.\nMETHODS: Cost savings: A model was developed to simulate reagent and consumable cost saving of pooled compared to individual sample testing. Daily sample/result data of a public health laboratory in South Africa were used to illustrate outputs from the model. Samples were randomly allocated to pools and the process was repeated 1000 times to measure variation in estimates due to this stochasticity. Clinical accuracy: 1170 patient samples were tested using the Roche CAP/CTM Qual assay in pools of five 50\u2009\u03bcl DBS. Negative pools comprised DBS previously tested in single reactions; positive pools included 1 positive sample.\nRESULTS: Pooling would have saved 64% of laboratory costs in 2015. The model is published as an R-based web tool, into which the user enters sample/positivity estimates and workflow management parameters to obtain cost saving estimates at an optimal pool size. Sensitivity of pooled testing was 98.8% overall; 100% for strongly reactive pools. One pool tested false positive which would not impact clinical specificity as individual patient testing is performed prior to reporting.\nCONCLUSIONS: Pooled PCR testing for EID remains accurate and dramatically reduces costs in settings with moderate to low prevalence rates and sufficient sample numbers.", 
    "genre": "research_article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s12879-019-3767-z", 
    "inLanguage": [
      "en"
    ], 
    "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1024946", 
        "issn": [
          "1471-2334"
        ], 
        "name": "BMC Infectious Diseases", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "1", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "19"
      }
    ], 
    "name": "Pooled PCR testing of dried blood spots for infant HIV diagnosis is cost efficient and accurate", 
    "pagination": "136", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "readcube_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "b905edcaf616ab8914e4ef9f44a4b1b513f964b156e1d4b074c14fd500238972"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "30744605"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "100968551"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1186/s12879-019-3767-z"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1112070299"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3767-z", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1112070299"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T12:26", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000362_0000000362/records_87112_00000001.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "https://link.springer.com/10.1186%2Fs12879-019-3767-z"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12879-019-3767-z'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12879-019-3767-z'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12879-019-3767-z'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12879-019-3767-z'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

162 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      47 URIs      32 LITERALS      20 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1186/s12879-019-3767-z schema:about N1e3b0f91603c4dd7aab4b733118b1ecf
2 N2289588457ef45a98bcaf1fe195e6c26
3 N2a86688232f045319697eb8dec8bc44c
4 N30d76937b6224f47a27100e625c31433
5 N5990ddc5b3ac41b69ce22d9e410b76f3
6 N8720af10423948cb987696eee118e5ec
7 Na345f32e68684a0a8373035dbae3707a
8 Nd45b62a6e4794ee7bcb94f0ca944aad4
9 Ne47298f2003e41ab997e62e01e0d4485
10 Ne80905f7aa1d45fca1514370ef1bcfd4
11 Nf2899374f736436397705b7ca42adbf6
12 anzsrc-for:11
13 anzsrc-for:1117
14 schema:author N850c289f21cd4c57ba09dce4703b1567
15 schema:citation https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.23811
16 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2011.12.002
17 https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmoa040085
18 https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmoa0800971
19 https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciq084
20 https://doi.org/10.1097/qai.0000000000000307
21 https://doi.org/10.1097/qai.0b013e3182a61e63
22 schema:datePublished 2019-12
23 schema:datePublishedReg 2019-12-01
24 schema:description BACKGROUND: Access to qualitative HIV PCRs for early infant diagnosis (EID) is restricted in resource-limited settings due to cost. We hypothesised that pooling of dried blood spots (DBS), defined as combining multiple patient samples in a single test with subsequent individual testing of positive pools, would be cost saving while retaining clinical accuracy compared to individual patient testing. METHODS: Cost savings: A model was developed to simulate reagent and consumable cost saving of pooled compared to individual sample testing. Daily sample/result data of a public health laboratory in South Africa were used to illustrate outputs from the model. Samples were randomly allocated to pools and the process was repeated 1000 times to measure variation in estimates due to this stochasticity. Clinical accuracy: 1170 patient samples were tested using the Roche CAP/CTM Qual assay in pools of five 50 μl DBS. Negative pools comprised DBS previously tested in single reactions; positive pools included 1 positive sample. RESULTS: Pooling would have saved 64% of laboratory costs in 2015. The model is published as an R-based web tool, into which the user enters sample/positivity estimates and workflow management parameters to obtain cost saving estimates at an optimal pool size. Sensitivity of pooled testing was 98.8% overall; 100% for strongly reactive pools. One pool tested false positive which would not impact clinical specificity as individual patient testing is performed prior to reporting. CONCLUSIONS: Pooled PCR testing for EID remains accurate and dramatically reduces costs in settings with moderate to low prevalence rates and sufficient sample numbers.
25 schema:genre research_article
26 schema:inLanguage en
27 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
28 schema:isPartOf Ndf704b1ef4d345d9969f34b51aaceb93
29 Ne3722dc8059049b4abe0a9b20d449f01
30 sg:journal.1024946
31 schema:name Pooled PCR testing of dried blood spots for infant HIV diagnosis is cost efficient and accurate
32 schema:pagination 136
33 schema:productId N49bcd25cc9c049d1b8c5d748543dd09c
34 N795a06c0a7754db2b408a688d6dbf1f6
35 N844bfe4071194de098742a7ddb9964eb
36 N9b33909f54834545b3825dbdd7bd3e52
37 Ncc22469f4ac34847b2b3128cf1aa0277
38 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1112070299
39 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3767-z
40 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T12:26
41 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
42 schema:sdPublisher Nad8b34c33bb342efadff80892595592f
43 schema:url https://link.springer.com/10.1186%2Fs12879-019-3767-z
44 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
45 sgo:sdDataset articles
46 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
47 N1e3b0f91603c4dd7aab4b733118b1ecf schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
48 schema:name Polymerase Chain Reaction
49 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
50 N2289588457ef45a98bcaf1fe195e6c26 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
51 schema:name Humans
52 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
53 N28daebf04c3e4c08b9e89466e237b9cb rdf:first N412aecfdb2534be985f054124d51080d
54 rdf:rest N820045c86ef24ea79dc94942ae5cc3f8
55 N2a86688232f045319697eb8dec8bc44c schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
56 schema:name South Africa
57 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
58 N30d76937b6224f47a27100e625c31433 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
59 schema:name HIV Infections
60 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
61 N412aecfdb2534be985f054124d51080d schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11956.3a
62 schema:familyName Maritz
63 schema:givenName Jean
64 rdf:type schema:Person
65 N46f3b67159674abb86e9170d8c0cddf9 rdf:first Nf245f5b6163a4b5886aea9681cb2cb79
66 rdf:rest rdf:nil
67 N49bcd25cc9c049d1b8c5d748543dd09c schema:name pubmed_id
68 schema:value 30744605
69 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
70 N5990ddc5b3ac41b69ce22d9e410b76f3 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
71 schema:name Sensitivity and Specificity
72 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
73 N795a06c0a7754db2b408a688d6dbf1f6 schema:name readcube_id
74 schema:value b905edcaf616ab8914e4ef9f44a4b1b513f964b156e1d4b074c14fd500238972
75 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
76 N820045c86ef24ea79dc94942ae5cc3f8 rdf:first Na4d6a258d3b34a8c8281a9772807ac6a
77 rdf:rest Ne392c9fdbb324d75a866317d71bbf749
78 N844bfe4071194de098742a7ddb9964eb schema:name doi
79 schema:value 10.1186/s12879-019-3767-z
80 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
81 N850c289f21cd4c57ba09dce4703b1567 rdf:first N8b2997a06b9d48b29fe91270415e9328
82 rdf:rest N28daebf04c3e4c08b9e89466e237b9cb
83 N8720af10423948cb987696eee118e5ec schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
84 schema:name Early Diagnosis
85 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
86 N8b2997a06b9d48b29fe91270415e9328 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11956.3a
87 schema:familyName van Schalkwyk
88 schema:givenName Cari
89 rdf:type schema:Person
90 N9b33909f54834545b3825dbdd7bd3e52 schema:name nlm_unique_id
91 schema:value 100968551
92 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
93 Na0f14678cabe4321ab8449b670c2c991 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.416657.7
94 schema:familyName Preiser
95 schema:givenName Wolfgang
96 rdf:type schema:Person
97 Na345f32e68684a0a8373035dbae3707a schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
98 schema:name Costs and Cost Analysis
99 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
100 Na4d6a258d3b34a8c8281a9772807ac6a schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.416657.7
101 schema:familyName van Zyl
102 schema:givenName Gert U.
103 rdf:type schema:Person
104 Nad8b34c33bb342efadff80892595592f schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
105 rdf:type schema:Organization
106 Ncc22469f4ac34847b2b3128cf1aa0277 schema:name dimensions_id
107 schema:value pub.1112070299
108 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
109 Nd45b62a6e4794ee7bcb94f0ca944aad4 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
110 schema:name Retrospective Studies
111 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
112 Ndf704b1ef4d345d9969f34b51aaceb93 schema:issueNumber 1
113 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
114 Ne3722dc8059049b4abe0a9b20d449f01 schema:volumeNumber 19
115 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
116 Ne392c9fdbb324d75a866317d71bbf749 rdf:first Na0f14678cabe4321ab8449b670c2c991
117 rdf:rest N46f3b67159674abb86e9170d8c0cddf9
118 Ne47298f2003e41ab997e62e01e0d4485 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
119 schema:name Models, Economic
120 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
121 Ne80905f7aa1d45fca1514370ef1bcfd4 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
122 schema:name Infant
123 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
124 Nf245f5b6163a4b5886aea9681cb2cb79 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11956.3a
125 schema:familyName Welte
126 schema:givenName Alex
127 rdf:type schema:Person
128 Nf2899374f736436397705b7ca42adbf6 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
129 schema:name Specimen Handling
130 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
131 anzsrc-for:11 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
132 schema:name Medical and Health Sciences
133 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
134 anzsrc-for:1117 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
135 schema:name Public Health and Health Services
136 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
137 sg:journal.1024946 schema:issn 1471-2334
138 schema:name BMC Infectious Diseases
139 rdf:type schema:Periodical
140 https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.23811 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007646273
141 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
142 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2011.12.002 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026736626
143 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
144 https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmoa040085 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026422109
145 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
146 https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmoa0800971 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043296298
147 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
148 https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciq084 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013361693
149 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
150 https://doi.org/10.1097/qai.0000000000000307 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018236918
151 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
152 https://doi.org/10.1097/qai.0b013e3182a61e63 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015119987
153 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
154 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11956.3a schema:alternateName Stellenbosch University
155 schema:name Division of Medical Virology, Department of Pathology, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
156 PathCare Reference Laboratory, Cape Town, South Africa
157 The DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Epidemiological Modelling and Analysis (SACEMA), Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa
158 rdf:type schema:Organization
159 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.416657.7 schema:alternateName National Health Laboratory Service
160 schema:name Division of Medical Virology, Department of Pathology, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
161 National Health Laboratory Service, Cape Town, South Africa
162 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...