Feasibility Study of HIV Sentinel Surveillance using PMTCT data in Cameroon: from Scientific Success to Programmatic Failure View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2017-12

AUTHORS

Serge C. Billong, Jacob Dee, Joseph Fokam, Georges Nguefack-Tsague, Gabriel L. Ekali, Raoul Fodjo, Edith S. Temgoua, Edson-Joan Billong, Samuel M. Sosso, Jembia J. Mosoko, Francisca Monebenimp, Alexis Ndjolo, Anne-Cecile Z-K. Bissek, Omotayo Bolu, Jean-Bosco N. Elat

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In low-income countries (LICs), HIV sentinel surveillance surveys (HIV-SSS) are recommended in between two demographic and health surveys, due to low-cost than the latter. Using the classical unlinked anonymous testing (UAT), HIV-SSS among pregnant women raised certain ethical and financial challenges. We therefore aimed at evaluating how to use prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) routine data as an alternative approach for HIV-SSS in LICs. METHODS: A survey conducted through 2012 among first antenatal-care attendees (ANC1) in the ten regions of Cameroon. HIV testing was performed at PMTCT clinics as-per the national serial algorithm (rapid test), and PMTCT site laboratory (PMTCT-SL) performances were evaluated by comparison with results of the national reference laboratory (NRL), determined as the reference standard. RESULTS: Acceptance rate for HIV testing was 99%, for a total of 6521 ANC1 (49 · 3% aged 15-24) enrolled nationwide. Among 6103 eligible ANC1, sensitivity (using NRL testing as the reference standard) was 81 · 2%, ranging from 58 · 8% (South region) to 100% (West region); thus implying that 18 · 8% HIV-infected ANC1 declared HIV-negative at the PMTCT-SL were positive from NRL-results. Specificity was 99 · 3%, without significant disparity across sites. At population-level, this implies that every year in Cameroon, ~2,500 HIV-infected women are wrongly declared seronegative, while ~1,000 are wrongly declared seropositive. Only 44 · 4% (16/36) of evaluated laboratories reached the quality target of 80%. CONCLUSIONS: The study identified weaknesses in routine PMTCT HIV testing. As Cameroon transitions to using routine PMTCT data for HIV-SSS among pregnant women, there is need in optimizing quality system to ensure robust routine HIV testing for programmatic and surveillance purposes. More... »

PAGES

3

References to SciGraph publications

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12879-016-2119-5

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-016-2119-5

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006145580

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28049451


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32 schema:description BACKGROUND: In low-income countries (LICs), HIV sentinel surveillance surveys (HIV-SSS) are recommended in between two demographic and health surveys, due to low-cost than the latter. Using the classical unlinked anonymous testing (UAT), HIV-SSS among pregnant women raised certain ethical and financial challenges. We therefore aimed at evaluating how to use prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) routine data as an alternative approach for HIV-SSS in LICs. METHODS: A survey conducted through 2012 among first antenatal-care attendees (ANC1) in the ten regions of Cameroon. HIV testing was performed at PMTCT clinics as-per the national serial algorithm (rapid test), and PMTCT site laboratory (PMTCT-SL) performances were evaluated by comparison with results of the national reference laboratory (NRL), determined as the reference standard. RESULTS: Acceptance rate for HIV testing was 99%, for a total of 6521 ANC1 (49 · 3% aged 15-24) enrolled nationwide. Among 6103 eligible ANC1, sensitivity (using NRL testing as the reference standard) was 81 · 2%, ranging from 58 · 8% (South region) to 100% (West region); thus implying that 18 · 8% HIV-infected ANC1 declared HIV-negative at the PMTCT-SL were positive from NRL-results. Specificity was 99 · 3%, without significant disparity across sites. At population-level, this implies that every year in Cameroon, ~2,500 HIV-infected women are wrongly declared seronegative, while ~1,000 are wrongly declared seropositive. Only 44 · 4% (16/36) of evaluated laboratories reached the quality target of 80%. CONCLUSIONS: The study identified weaknesses in routine PMTCT HIV testing. As Cameroon transitions to using routine PMTCT data for HIV-SSS among pregnant women, there is need in optimizing quality system to ensure robust routine HIV testing for programmatic and surveillance purposes.
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