Impact of naturally occurring amino acid variations on the detection of HIV-1 p24 in diagnostic antigen tests View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2015-12

AUTHORS

Beatrice N. Vetter, Vanessa Orlowski, Christoph Niederhauser, Louise Walter, Jörg Schüpbach

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen in diagnostic tests relies on antibodies binding to conserved areas of the protein to cover the full range of HIV-1 subtypes. Using a panel of 43 different virus-like particles (VLPs) expressing Gag from clinical HIV-1 isolates, we previously found that some highly sensitive tests completely failed to detect p24 of certain VLPs, seemingly unrelated to their subtype. Here we aimed to investigate the reason for this failure, hypothesising that it might be due to single amino acid variations in conserved epitopes. METHODS: Using amino acid alignment, we identified single amino acid variations at position 16 or 170 of p24, unique to those VLPs that failed to be detected in certain diagnostic tests. Through DNA-mutagenesis, these amino acids were changed to ones more commonly found at these positions. The impact of these changes on p24 detection was tested in commercial diagnostic tests as well as by Western Blot and ELISA, using epitope-specific antibodies. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Changing positions 16 or 170 to consensus amino acids restored the detection of p24 by the investigated diagnostic tests as well as by epitope-specific antibodies in Western Blot and ELISA. Hence, single amino acid changes in conserved epitopes can lead to the failure of p24 detection and thus to false-negative results. To optimise HIV diagnostic tests, they should also be evaluated using isolates which harbour less-frequent epitope variants. More... »

PAGES

468

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12879-015-1174-7

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-015-1174-7

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006371448

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26511217


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1108", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Medical Microbiology", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/11", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Medical and Health Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "AIDS Serodiagnosis", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Amino Acids", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Antigens, Viral", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Blotting, Western", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Epitopes", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "HIV Core Protein p24", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "HIV-1", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Humans", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Mutagenesis, Site-Directed", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Reagent Kits, Diagnostic", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Zurich", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.7400.3", 
          "name": [
            "Swiss National Center for Retroviruses (SNCR), Institute of Medical Virology, University of Z\u00fcrich, Z\u00fcrich, Switzerland"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Vetter", 
        "givenName": "Beatrice N.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01250671474.26", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01250671474.26"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Zurich", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.7400.3", 
          "name": [
            "Institute of Molecular Life Science, University of Z\u00fcrich, Z\u00fcrich, Switzerland"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Orlowski", 
        "givenName": "Vanessa", 
        "id": "sg:person.01361377436.13", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01361377436.13"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Swiss Red Cross", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.452284.d", 
          "name": [
            "Blood Transfusion Service, Swiss Red Cross Berne (BSDSRK), Berne, Switzerland"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Niederhauser", 
        "givenName": "Christoph", 
        "id": "sg:person.01321110261.22", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01321110261.22"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Swissmedic", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.483664.b", 
          "name": [
            "Official Medicines Control Laboratory, Biologika, Swissmedic, Berne, Switzerland"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Walter", 
        "givenName": "Louise", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Zurich", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.7400.3", 
          "name": [
            "Swiss National Center for Retroviruses (SNCR), Institute of Medical Virology, University of Z\u00fcrich, Z\u00fcrich, Switzerland"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Sch\u00fcpbach", 
        "givenName": "J\u00f6rg", 
        "id": "sg:person.01071627041.43", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01071627041.43"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20081984", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020801316"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.20655", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022501245"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2012.06.012", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030213299"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.23556", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031758565"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20031982", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031833709"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/emboj/17.6.1555", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034235515"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/cvi.00066-10", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038454849"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2011.11.003", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041034306"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111552", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041186078"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2007.05.020", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041642585"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2012.05.009", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041758732"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature13838", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043911378", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13838"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.77.9.5439-5450.2003", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044633327"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1089/aid.1996.12.1691", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059224288"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.273.5272.231", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062553593"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078438091", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082619970", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2015-12", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2015-12-01", 
    "description": "BACKGROUND: The detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen in diagnostic tests relies on antibodies binding to conserved areas of the protein to cover the full range of HIV-1 subtypes. Using a panel of 43 different virus-like particles (VLPs) expressing Gag from clinical HIV-1 isolates, we previously found that some highly sensitive tests completely failed to detect p24 of certain VLPs, seemingly unrelated to their subtype. Here we aimed to investigate the reason for this failure, hypothesising that it might be due to single amino acid variations in conserved epitopes.\nMETHODS: Using amino acid alignment, we identified single amino acid variations at position 16 or 170 of p24, unique to those VLPs that failed to be detected in certain diagnostic tests. Through DNA-mutagenesis, these amino acids were changed to ones more commonly found at these positions. The impact of these changes on p24 detection was tested in commercial diagnostic tests as well as by Western Blot and ELISA, using epitope-specific antibodies.\nRESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Changing positions 16 or 170 to consensus amino acids restored the detection of p24 by the investigated diagnostic tests as well as by epitope-specific antibodies in Western Blot and ELISA. Hence, single amino acid changes in conserved epitopes can lead to the failure of p24 detection and thus to false-negative results. To optimise HIV diagnostic tests, they should also be evaluated using isolates which harbour less-frequent epitope variants.", 
    "genre": "research_article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s12879-015-1174-7", 
    "inLanguage": [
      "en"
    ], 
    "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1024946", 
        "issn": [
          "1471-2334"
        ], 
        "name": "BMC Infectious Diseases", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "1", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "15"
      }
    ], 
    "name": "Impact of naturally occurring amino acid variations on the detection of HIV-1 p24 in diagnostic antigen tests", 
    "pagination": "468", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "readcube_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "1e5957ce73c1a2e501098b49338ceb9c6e8e9da6b474ea1da3355c9c306f9897"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "26511217"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "100968551"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1186/s12879-015-1174-7"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1006371448"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-015-1174-7", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006371448"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-10T21:43", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8687_00000549.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "http://link.springer.com/10.1186%2Fs12879-015-1174-7"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12879-015-1174-7'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12879-015-1174-7'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12879-015-1174-7'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12879-015-1174-7'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

196 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      57 URIs      32 LITERALS      20 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1186/s12879-015-1174-7 schema:about N1c332f0ef9c44298b2d664354382543e
2 N1fc7afd808eb41e5aa960f04053cfa82
3 N31e3899089f24f3794a5fdac7c16033c
4 N3f90c69ed99f4a2d99c2bb687303ec5e
5 N8fd7b21eed314877a72224fe93945fea
6 Nb23734a32c0a47b28000371c2c761177
7 Nb41f296c5ac14cd9b7a3ff0f507ec1ac
8 Ndfe72d9bf9bf4ae59b67e88c3913b1e2
9 Ne02a943a09254bb6aeb9fb5b0632572b
10 Ne2f9b3e3bfff40f5a205c2a4800dc124
11 Nf0fc36bfff93412fba406ceef6473f0d
12 anzsrc-for:11
13 anzsrc-for:1108
14 schema:author N232bdc24a293469cad855b7d2236a040
15 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1038/nature13838
16 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078438091
17 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082619970
18 https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.20655
19 https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.23556
20 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2012.06.012
21 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2012.05.009
22 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2007.05.020
23 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2011.11.003
24 https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20031982
25 https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20081984
26 https://doi.org/10.1089/aid.1996.12.1691
27 https://doi.org/10.1093/emboj/17.6.1555
28 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.273.5272.231
29 https://doi.org/10.1128/cvi.00066-10
30 https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.77.9.5439-5450.2003
31 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111552
32 schema:datePublished 2015-12
33 schema:datePublishedReg 2015-12-01
34 schema:description BACKGROUND: The detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen in diagnostic tests relies on antibodies binding to conserved areas of the protein to cover the full range of HIV-1 subtypes. Using a panel of 43 different virus-like particles (VLPs) expressing Gag from clinical HIV-1 isolates, we previously found that some highly sensitive tests completely failed to detect p24 of certain VLPs, seemingly unrelated to their subtype. Here we aimed to investigate the reason for this failure, hypothesising that it might be due to single amino acid variations in conserved epitopes. METHODS: Using amino acid alignment, we identified single amino acid variations at position 16 or 170 of p24, unique to those VLPs that failed to be detected in certain diagnostic tests. Through DNA-mutagenesis, these amino acids were changed to ones more commonly found at these positions. The impact of these changes on p24 detection was tested in commercial diagnostic tests as well as by Western Blot and ELISA, using epitope-specific antibodies. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Changing positions 16 or 170 to consensus amino acids restored the detection of p24 by the investigated diagnostic tests as well as by epitope-specific antibodies in Western Blot and ELISA. Hence, single amino acid changes in conserved epitopes can lead to the failure of p24 detection and thus to false-negative results. To optimise HIV diagnostic tests, they should also be evaluated using isolates which harbour less-frequent epitope variants.
35 schema:genre research_article
36 schema:inLanguage en
37 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
38 schema:isPartOf N0da1bd3614994354815b02aa90e3a1df
39 N9c249be75c9c42eb8888886beda0e82b
40 sg:journal.1024946
41 schema:name Impact of naturally occurring amino acid variations on the detection of HIV-1 p24 in diagnostic antigen tests
42 schema:pagination 468
43 schema:productId N0deaa7a8c6fd436e9d79be3e82edc050
44 N0e4cd4927ef444b49485ebbc29ab5705
45 N34ffd5fdc6fa49f39b62422e76281870
46 Nc8c299a8f8a84cefa405a645da31095a
47 Nca870dbb9a36468dae23577d16231fdc
48 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006371448
49 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-015-1174-7
50 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-10T21:43
51 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
52 schema:sdPublisher Nb06c84e704064bceb93948aa259a432e
53 schema:url http://link.springer.com/10.1186%2Fs12879-015-1174-7
54 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
55 sgo:sdDataset articles
56 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
57 N0da1bd3614994354815b02aa90e3a1df schema:issueNumber 1
58 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
59 N0deaa7a8c6fd436e9d79be3e82edc050 schema:name nlm_unique_id
60 schema:value 100968551
61 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
62 N0e4cd4927ef444b49485ebbc29ab5705 schema:name pubmed_id
63 schema:value 26511217
64 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
65 N1c332f0ef9c44298b2d664354382543e schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
66 schema:name HIV Core Protein p24
67 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
68 N1fc7afd808eb41e5aa960f04053cfa82 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
69 schema:name HIV-1
70 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
71 N232bdc24a293469cad855b7d2236a040 rdf:first sg:person.01250671474.26
72 rdf:rest N670151a54d29426980eef56f4564e5b8
73 N27e871b0fa174c6ead9a97ac36d2d326 rdf:first N3b7954b291f448a98463dec943f538d2
74 rdf:rest N469ed753b8b5496cb7fec003dec4cdd8
75 N31e3899089f24f3794a5fdac7c16033c schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
76 schema:name Antigens, Viral
77 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
78 N34ffd5fdc6fa49f39b62422e76281870 schema:name doi
79 schema:value 10.1186/s12879-015-1174-7
80 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
81 N3b7954b291f448a98463dec943f538d2 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.483664.b
82 schema:familyName Walter
83 schema:givenName Louise
84 rdf:type schema:Person
85 N3f90c69ed99f4a2d99c2bb687303ec5e schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
86 schema:name Reagent Kits, Diagnostic
87 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
88 N469ed753b8b5496cb7fec003dec4cdd8 rdf:first sg:person.01071627041.43
89 rdf:rest rdf:nil
90 N670151a54d29426980eef56f4564e5b8 rdf:first sg:person.01361377436.13
91 rdf:rest Nbed948ea061f44fa995bbbfca8b43028
92 N8fd7b21eed314877a72224fe93945fea schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
93 schema:name AIDS Serodiagnosis
94 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
95 N9c249be75c9c42eb8888886beda0e82b schema:volumeNumber 15
96 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
97 Nb06c84e704064bceb93948aa259a432e schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
98 rdf:type schema:Organization
99 Nb23734a32c0a47b28000371c2c761177 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
100 schema:name Amino Acids
101 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
102 Nb41f296c5ac14cd9b7a3ff0f507ec1ac schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
103 schema:name Mutagenesis, Site-Directed
104 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
105 Nbed948ea061f44fa995bbbfca8b43028 rdf:first sg:person.01321110261.22
106 rdf:rest N27e871b0fa174c6ead9a97ac36d2d326
107 Nc8c299a8f8a84cefa405a645da31095a schema:name readcube_id
108 schema:value 1e5957ce73c1a2e501098b49338ceb9c6e8e9da6b474ea1da3355c9c306f9897
109 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
110 Nca870dbb9a36468dae23577d16231fdc schema:name dimensions_id
111 schema:value pub.1006371448
112 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
113 Ndfe72d9bf9bf4ae59b67e88c3913b1e2 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
114 schema:name Epitopes
115 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
116 Ne02a943a09254bb6aeb9fb5b0632572b schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
117 schema:name Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
118 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
119 Ne2f9b3e3bfff40f5a205c2a4800dc124 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
120 schema:name Blotting, Western
121 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
122 Nf0fc36bfff93412fba406ceef6473f0d schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
123 schema:name Humans
124 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
125 anzsrc-for:11 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
126 schema:name Medical and Health Sciences
127 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
128 anzsrc-for:1108 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
129 schema:name Medical Microbiology
130 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
131 sg:journal.1024946 schema:issn 1471-2334
132 schema:name BMC Infectious Diseases
133 rdf:type schema:Periodical
134 sg:person.01071627041.43 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.7400.3
135 schema:familyName Schüpbach
136 schema:givenName Jörg
137 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01071627041.43
138 rdf:type schema:Person
139 sg:person.01250671474.26 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.7400.3
140 schema:familyName Vetter
141 schema:givenName Beatrice N.
142 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01250671474.26
143 rdf:type schema:Person
144 sg:person.01321110261.22 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.452284.d
145 schema:familyName Niederhauser
146 schema:givenName Christoph
147 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01321110261.22
148 rdf:type schema:Person
149 sg:person.01361377436.13 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.7400.3
150 schema:familyName Orlowski
151 schema:givenName Vanessa
152 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01361377436.13
153 rdf:type schema:Person
154 sg:pub.10.1038/nature13838 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043911378
155 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13838
156 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
157 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078438091 schema:CreativeWork
158 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082619970 schema:CreativeWork
159 https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.20655 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022501245
160 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
161 https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.23556 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031758565
162 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
163 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2012.06.012 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030213299
164 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
165 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2012.05.009 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041758732
166 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
167 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2007.05.020 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041642585
168 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
169 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2011.11.003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041034306
170 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
171 https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20031982 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031833709
172 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
173 https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20081984 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020801316
174 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
175 https://doi.org/10.1089/aid.1996.12.1691 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059224288
176 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
177 https://doi.org/10.1093/emboj/17.6.1555 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034235515
178 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
179 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.273.5272.231 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062553593
180 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
181 https://doi.org/10.1128/cvi.00066-10 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038454849
182 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
183 https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.77.9.5439-5450.2003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044633327
184 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
185 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111552 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041186078
186 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
187 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.452284.d schema:alternateName Swiss Red Cross
188 schema:name Blood Transfusion Service, Swiss Red Cross Berne (BSDSRK), Berne, Switzerland
189 rdf:type schema:Organization
190 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.483664.b schema:alternateName Swissmedic
191 schema:name Official Medicines Control Laboratory, Biologika, Swissmedic, Berne, Switzerland
192 rdf:type schema:Organization
193 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.7400.3 schema:alternateName University of Zurich
194 schema:name Institute of Molecular Life Science, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
195 Swiss National Center for Retroviruses (SNCR), Institute of Medical Virology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
196 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...