Microbiological characteristics of different tongue coatings in adults View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2022-09-09

AUTHORS

Caihong He, Qiaoyun Liao, Peng Fu, Jinyou Li, Xinxiu Zhao, Qin Zhang, Qifeng Gui

ABSTRACT

BackgroundTongue coating is an important health indicator in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The tongue coating microbiome can distinguish disease patients from healthy controls. To study the relationship between different types of tongue coatings and health, we analyzed the species composition of different types of tongue coatings and the co-occurrence relationships between microorganisms in Chinese adults.From June 2019 to October 2020, 158 adults from Hangzhou and Shaoxing City, Zhejiang Province, were enrolled. We classified the TCM tongue coatings into four different types: thin white tongue fur (TWF), thin yellow tongue fur (TYF), white greasy tongue fur (WGF), and yellow greasy tongue fur (YGF). Tongue coating specimens were collected and used for 16S rRNA gene sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq system. Wilcoxon rank-sum and permutational multivariate analysis of variance tests were used to analyze the data. The microbial networks in the four types of tongue coatings were inferred independently using sparse inverse covariance estimation for ecological association inference.ResultsThe microbial composition was similar among the different tongue coatings; however, the abundance of microorganisms differed. TWF had a higher abundance of Fusobacterium periodonticum and Neisseria mucosa, the highest α-diversity, and a highly connected community (average degree = 3.59, average closeness centrality = 0.33). TYF had the lowest α-diversity, but the most species in the co-occurrence network diagram (number of nodes = 88). The platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) was associated with tongue coating (P = 0.035), and the YGF and TYF groups had higher PLR values. In the co-occurrence network, Aggregatibacter segnis was the “driver species” of the TWF and TYF groups and correlated with C-reactive protein (P < 0.05). Streptococcus anginosus was the “driver species” in the YGF and TWF groups and was positively correlated with body mass index and weight (P < 0.05).ConclusionDifferent tongue coatings have similar microbial compositions but different abundances of certain bacteria. The co-occurrence of microorganisms in the different tongue coatings also varies. The significance of different tongue coatings in TCM theory is consistent with the characteristics and roles of the corresponding tongue-coating microbes. This further supports considering tongue coating as a risk factor for disease. More... »

PAGES

214

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12866-022-02626-7

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-022-02626-7

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1150896776

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/36085010


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112 risk factors
113 role
114 sequencing
115 significance
116 similar microbial composition
117 sparse inverse covariance estimation
118 species
119 species composition
120 specimens
121 system
122 test
123 theory
124 tongue coating
125 tongue coating microbiome
126 tongue fur
127 traditional Chinese medicine
128 types
129 values
130 variance test
131 weight
132 α-diversity
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