Modeled microgravity alters apoptotic gene expression and caspase activity in the squid-vibrio symbiosis View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2022-08-18

AUTHORS

Madeline M. Vroom, Angel Troncoso-Garcia, Alexandrea A. Duscher, Jamie S. Foster

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSpaceflight is a novel and profoundly stressful environment for life. One aspect of spaceflight, microgravity, has been shown to perturb animal physiology thereby posing numerous health risks, including dysregulation of normal developmental pathways. Microgravity can also negatively impact the interactions between animals and their microbiomes. However, the effects of microgravity on developmental processes influenced by beneficial microbes, such as apoptosis, remains poorly understood. Here, the binary mutualism between the bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, and the gram-negative bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, was studied under modeled microgravity conditions to elucidate how this unique stressor alters apoptotic cell death induced by beneficial microbes.ResultsAnalysis of the host genome and transcriptome revealed a complex network of apoptosis genes affiliated with extrinsic/receptor-mediated and intrinsic/stress-induced apoptosis. Expression of apoptosis genes under modeled microgravity conditions occurred earlier and at high levels compared to gravity controls, in particular the expression of genes encoding initiator and executioner caspases. Functional assays of these apoptotic proteases revealed heightened activity under modeled microgravity; however, these increases could be mitigated using caspase inhibitors.ConclusionsThe outcomes of this study indicated that modeled microgravity alters the expression of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis gene expression and that this process is mediated in part by caspases. Modeled microgravity-associated increases of caspase activity can be pharmacologically inhibited suggesting that perturbations to the normal apoptosis signaling cascade can be mitigated, which may have broader implications for maintaining animal-microbial homeostasis in spaceflight. More... »

PAGES

202

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    38 schema:description BackgroundSpaceflight is a novel and profoundly stressful environment for life. One aspect of spaceflight, microgravity, has been shown to perturb animal physiology thereby posing numerous health risks, including dysregulation of normal developmental pathways. Microgravity can also negatively impact the interactions between animals and their microbiomes. However, the effects of microgravity on developmental processes influenced by beneficial microbes, such as apoptosis, remains poorly understood. Here, the binary mutualism between the bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, and the gram-negative bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, was studied under modeled microgravity conditions to elucidate how this unique stressor alters apoptotic cell death induced by beneficial microbes.ResultsAnalysis of the host genome and transcriptome revealed a complex network of apoptosis genes affiliated with extrinsic/receptor-mediated and intrinsic/stress-induced apoptosis. Expression of apoptosis genes under modeled microgravity conditions occurred earlier and at high levels compared to gravity controls, in particular the expression of genes encoding initiator and executioner caspases. Functional assays of these apoptotic proteases revealed heightened activity under modeled microgravity; however, these increases could be mitigated using caspase inhibitors.ConclusionsThe outcomes of this study indicated that modeled microgravity alters the expression of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis gene expression and that this process is mediated in part by caspases. Modeled microgravity-associated increases of caspase activity can be pharmacologically inhibited suggesting that perturbations to the normal apoptosis signaling cascade can be mitigated, which may have broader implications for maintaining animal-microbial homeostasis in spaceflight.
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    44 schema:keywords ConclusionsThe outcome
    45 Euprymna
    46 ResultsAnalysis
    47 Vibrio fischeri
    48 activity
    49 alters
    50 animal physiology
    51 animals
    52 apoptosis
    53 apoptosis gene expression
    54 apoptosis genes
    55 apoptotic cell death
    56 apoptotic gene expression
    57 apoptotic protease
    58 aspects
    59 aspects of spaceflight
    60 assays
    61 bacterium
    62 beneficial microbes
    63 bobtail squid
    64 broad implications
    65 cascade
    66 caspase activity
    67 caspase inhibitors
    68 caspases
    69 cell death
    70 complex networks
    71 conditions
    72 control
    73 death
    74 developmental pathways
    75 developmental processes
    76 dysregulation
    77 effect
    78 effects of microgravity
    79 environment
    80 executioner caspases
    81 expression
    82 expression of genes
    83 fischeri
    84 functional assays
    85 gene expression
    86 genes
    87 genome
    88 gravity control
    89 health risks
    90 high levels
    91 homeostasis
    92 host genome
    93 implications
    94 increase
    95 inhibitors
    96 initiator
    97 interaction
    98 levels
    99 life
    100 microbes
    101 microbiome
    102 microgravity
    103 microgravity alters
    104 microgravity conditions
    105 mutualism
    106 negative bacterium
    107 network
    108 normal apoptosis
    109 normal developmental pathway
    110 numerous health risks
    111 outcomes
    112 part
    113 pathway
    114 perturbations
    115 physiology
    116 process
    117 protease
    118 risk
    119 spaceflight
    120 squid
    121 squid-vibrio symbiosis
    122 stress-induced apoptosis
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