Genome-wide data from the Bubi of Bioko Island clarifies the Atlantic fringe of the Bantu dispersal View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2019-03-06

AUTHORS

Pere Gelabert, Manuel Ferrando-Bernal, Toni de-Dios, Benedetta Mattorre, Elena Campoy, Amaya Gorostiza, Etienne Patin, Antonio González-Martín, Carles Lalueza-Fox

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bioko is one of the few islands that exist around Africa, the most genetically diverse continent on the planet. The native Bantu-speaking inhabitants of Bioko, the Bubi, are believed to have colonized the island about 2000 years ago. Here, we sequenced the genome of thirteen Bubi individuals at high coverage and analysed their sequences in comparison to mainland populations from the Gulf of Guinea. RESULTS: We found that, genetically, the closest mainland population to the Bubi are Bantu-speaking groups from Angola instead the geographically closer groups from Cameroon. The Bubi possess a lower proportion of rainforest hunter-gatherer (RHG) ancestry than most other Bantu-speaking groups. However, their RHG component most likely came from the same source and could have reached them by gene flow from the mainland after island settlement. By studying identity by descent (IBD) genomic blocks and runs of homozygosity (ROHs), we found evidence for a significant level of genetic isolation among the Bubi, isolation that can be attributed to the island effect. Additionally, as this population is known to have one of the highest malaria incidence rates in the world we analysed their genome for malaria-resistant alleles. However, we were unable to detect any specific selective sweeps related to this disease. CONCLUSIONS: By describing their dispersal to the Atlantic islands, the genomic characterization of the Bubi contributes to the understanding of the margins of the massive Bantu migration that shaped all Sub-Saharan African populations. More... »

PAGES

179

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    30 schema:description BACKGROUND: Bioko is one of the few islands that exist around Africa, the most genetically diverse continent on the planet. The native Bantu-speaking inhabitants of Bioko, the Bubi, are believed to have colonized the island about 2000 years ago. Here, we sequenced the genome of thirteen Bubi individuals at high coverage and analysed their sequences in comparison to mainland populations from the Gulf of Guinea. RESULTS: We found that, genetically, the closest mainland population to the Bubi are Bantu-speaking groups from Angola instead the geographically closer groups from Cameroon. The Bubi possess a lower proportion of rainforest hunter-gatherer (RHG) ancestry than most other Bantu-speaking groups. However, their RHG component most likely came from the same source and could have reached them by gene flow from the mainland after island settlement. By studying identity by descent (IBD) genomic blocks and runs of homozygosity (ROHs), we found evidence for a significant level of genetic isolation among the Bubi, isolation that can be attributed to the island effect. Additionally, as this population is known to have one of the highest malaria incidence rates in the world we analysed their genome for malaria-resistant alleles. However, we were unable to detect any specific selective sweeps related to this disease. CONCLUSIONS: By describing their dispersal to the Atlantic islands, the genomic characterization of the Bubi contributes to the understanding of the margins of the massive Bantu migration that shaped all Sub-Saharan African populations.
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    38 African populations
    39 Angola
    40 Atlantic fringe
    41 Atlantic islands
    42 Bantu
    43 Bantu dispersals
    44 Bantu migrations
    45 Bioko
    46 Bioko Island
    47 Bubi
    48 Bubi individuals
    49 Cameroon
    50 Guinea
    51 Gulf
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    54 alleles
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    57 characterization
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    60 comparison
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    64 data
    65 descent (IBD) genomic blocks
    66 disease
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    71 flow
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    75 genome
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    79 group
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    81 highest malaria incidence rate
    82 homozygosity
    83 hunter-gatherer ancestry
    84 identity
    85 incidence rate
    86 individuals
    87 inhabitants
    88 inhabitants of Bioko
    89 island effect
    90 island settlement
    91 islands
    92 isolation
    93 levels
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    95 mainland
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    97 malaria incidence rates
    98 malaria-resistant alleles
    99 margin
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    103 planets
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    106 rainforest hunter-gatherer (RHG) ancestry
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    110 same source
    111 selective sweeps
    112 sequence
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    117 sub-Saharan African populations
    118 sweep
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