Genetic architecture of kernel composition in global sorghum germplasm View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2017-01-05

AUTHORS

Davina H. Rhodes, Leo Hoffmann, William L. Rooney, Thomas J. Herald, Scott Bean, Richard Boyles, Zachary W. Brenton, Stephen Kresovich

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important cereal crop for dryland areas in the United States and for small-holder farmers in Africa. Natural variation of sorghum grain composition (protein, fat, and starch) between accessions can be used for crop improvement, but the genetic controls are still unresolved. The goals of this study were to quantify natural variation of sorghum grain composition and to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with variation in grain composition concentrations.ResultsIn this study, we quantified protein, fat, and starch in a global sorghum diversity panel using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Protein content ranged from 8.1 to 18.8%, fat content ranged from 1.0 to 4.3%, and starch content ranged from 61.7 to 71.1%. Durra and bicolor-durra sorghum from Ethiopia and India had the highest protein and fat and the lowest starch content, while kafir sorghum from USA, India, and South Africa had the lowest protein and the highest starch content. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for sorghum protein, fat, and starch. Previously published RNAseq data was used to identify candidate genes within a GWAS QTL region. A putative alpha-amylase 3 gene, which has previously been shown to be associated with grain composition traits, was identified as a strong candidate for protein and fat variation.ConclusionsWe identified promising sources of genetic material for manipulation of grain composition traits, and several loci and candidate genes that may control sorghum grain composition. This survey of grain composition in sorghum germplasm and identification of protein, fat, and starch QTL contributes to our understanding of the genetic basis of natural variation in sorghum grain nutritional traits. More... »

PAGES

15

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    33 schema:description BackgroundSorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important cereal crop for dryland areas in the United States and for small-holder farmers in Africa. Natural variation of sorghum grain composition (protein, fat, and starch) between accessions can be used for crop improvement, but the genetic controls are still unresolved. The goals of this study were to quantify natural variation of sorghum grain composition and to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with variation in grain composition concentrations.ResultsIn this study, we quantified protein, fat, and starch in a global sorghum diversity panel using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Protein content ranged from 8.1 to 18.8%, fat content ranged from 1.0 to 4.3%, and starch content ranged from 61.7 to 71.1%. Durra and bicolor-durra sorghum from Ethiopia and India had the highest protein and fat and the lowest starch content, while kafir sorghum from USA, India, and South Africa had the lowest protein and the highest starch content. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for sorghum protein, fat, and starch. Previously published RNAseq data was used to identify candidate genes within a GWAS QTL region. A putative alpha-amylase 3 gene, which has previously been shown to be associated with grain composition traits, was identified as a strong candidate for protein and fat variation.ConclusionsWe identified promising sources of genetic material for manipulation of grain composition traits, and several loci and candidate genes that may control sorghum grain composition. This survey of grain composition in sorghum germplasm and identification of protein, fat, and starch QTL contributes to our understanding of the genetic basis of natural variation in sorghum grain nutritional traits.
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    40 ConclusionsWe
    41 Ethiopia
    42 India
    43 QTL regions
    44 RNAseq data
    45 ResultsIn
    46 South Africa
    47 USA
    48 United States
    49 accessions
    50 architecture
    51 area
    52 association studies
    53 basis
    54 candidate genes
    55 candidates
    56 cereal crops
    57 composition
    58 composition concentration
    59 composition traits
    60 concentration
    61 content
    62 control
    63 crop improvement
    64 crops
    65 data
    66 diversity panel
    67 dryland areas
    68 durra
    69 farmers
    70 fat
    71 fat content
    72 fat variation
    73 genes
    74 genetic architecture
    75 genetic basis
    76 genetic control
    77 genetic material
    78 genome-wide association studies
    79 germplasm
    80 goal
    81 grain composition
    82 grain composition traits
    83 grain nutritional traits
    84 high protein
    85 high starch content
    86 identification
    87 identification of proteins
    88 important cereal crop
    89 improvement
    90 kernel composition
    91 loci
    92 low protein
    93 lower starch content
    94 manipulation
    95 materials
    96 natural variation
    97 nutritional traits
    98 panel
    99 polymorphism
    100 promising source
    101 protein
    102 protein content
    103 quantitative trait loci
    104 region
    105 single nucleotide polymorphisms
    106 small holder farmers
    107 sorghum
    108 sorghum diversity panel
    109 sorghum germplasm
    110 sorghum grain composition
    111 sorghum proteins
    112 source
    113 spectroscopy
    114 starch
    115 starch content
    116 state
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