First report of Y-linked genes in the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2016-02-09

AUTHORS

Leonardo B Koerich, Eduardo G Dupim, Leonardo L Faria, Felipe A Dias, Ana F Dias, Gabriela S Trindade, Rafael D Mesquita, Antonio B Carvalho

ABSTRACT

BackgroundDue to an abundance of repetitive DNA, the annotation of heterochromatic regions of the genome such as the Y chromosome is problematic. The Y chromosome is involved in key biological functions such as male-fertility and sex-determination and hence, accurate identification of its sequences is vital. The hemipteran insect Rhodnius prolixus is an important vector of Chagas disease, a trypanosomiasis affecting 6–7 million people worldwide. Here we report the identification of the first Y-linked genes of this species.ResultsThe R. prolixus genome was recently sequenced using separate libraries for each sex and the sequences assembled only with male reads are candidates for Y linkage. We found 766 such candidates and PCR tests with the ten largest ones, confirmed Y-linkage for all of them, suggesting that "separate libraries" is a reliable method for the identification of Y-linked sequences. BLAST analyses of the 766 candidate scaffolds revealed that 568 scaffolds contained genes or part of putative genes. We tested Y-linkage for 36 candidates and found that nine of them are Y-linked (the PCR results for the other 25 genes were inconclusive or revealed autosomal/X-linkage). Hence, we describe in this study, for the first time, Y-linked genes in the R. prolixus genome: two zinc finger proteins (Znf-Y1 and Znf-Y2), one metalloproteinase (Met-Y), one aconitase/iron regulatory protein (Aco-Y) and five genes devoid of matches in any database (Rpr-Y1 to Rpr-Y5). Expression profile studies revealed that eight genes are expressed mainly in adult testis (some of which presented a weak expression in the initial developmental stages), while Aco-Y has a gut-restricted expression.ConclusionsIn this study we showed that the approach used for the R. prolixus genome project (separate sequencing of male and female DNA) is key to easy and fast identification of sex-specific (e.g. Y chromosome sequences). The nine new R. prolixus Y-linked genes reported here provide unique markers for population and phylogenetic analysis and further functional studies of these genes may answer some questions about sex determination, male fertility and Y chromosome evolution in this important species. More... »

PAGES

100

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12864-016-2425-8

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-016-2425-8

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003865055

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26861771


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62 evolution
63 expression
64 expression profile studies
65 fast identification
66 fertility
67 finger protein
68 first report
69 first time
70 function
71 functional studies
72 further functional studies
73 genes
74 genome
75 heterochromatic regions
76 identification
77 important species
78 important vector
79 insect Rhodnius prolixus
80 iron regulatory proteins
81 key biological functions
82 larger ones
83 library
84 linkage
85 male fertility
86 markers
87 match
88 metalloproteinase
89 method
90 one
91 part
92 people
93 phylogenetic analysis
94 population
95 profile studies
96 project
97 prolixus
98 prolixus genome
99 protein
100 putative genes
101 questions
102 reads
103 region
104 regulatory proteins
105 reliable method
106 repetitive DNA
107 report
108 scaffolds
109 separate libraries
110 sequence
111 sex
112 sex determination
113 species
114 study
115 such candidates
116 test
117 testis
118 time
119 trypanosomiasis
120 unique marker
121 vector
122 zinc finger protein
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