Drosophila anti-nematode and antibacterial immune regulators revealed by RNA-Seq View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2015-07-11

AUTHORS

Julio C. Castillo, Todd Creasy, Priti Kumari, Amol Shetty, Upasana Shokal, Luke J. Tallon, Ioannis Eleftherianos

ABSTRACT

BackgroundDrosophila melanogaster activates a variety of immune responses against microbial infections. However, information on the Drosophila immune response to entomopathogenic nematode infections is currently limited. The nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora is an insect parasite that forms a mutualistic relationship with the gram-negative bacteria Photorhabdus luminescens. Following infection, the nematodes release the bacteria that quickly multiply within the insect and produce several toxins that eventually kill the host. Although we currently know that the insect immune system interacts with Photorhabdus, information on interaction with the nematode vector is scarce.ResultsHere we have used next generation RNA-sequencing to analyze the transcriptional profile of wild-type adult flies infected by axenic Heterorhabditis nematodes (lacking Photorhabdus bacteria), symbiotic Heterorhabditis nematodes (carrying Photorhabdus bacteria), and Photorhabdus bacteria alone. We have obtained approximately 54 million reads from the different infection treatments. Bioinformatic analysis shows that infection with Photorhabdus alters the transcription of a large number of Drosophila genes involved in translational repression as well in response to stress. However, Heterorhabditis infection alters the transcription of several genes that participate in lipidhomeostasis and metabolism, stress responses, DNA/protein sythesis and neuronal functions. We have also identified genes in the fly with potential roles in nematode recognition, anti-nematode activity and nociception.ConclusionsThese findings provide fundamental information on the molecular events that take place in Drosophila upon infection with the two pathogens, either separately or together. Such large-scale transcriptomic analyses set the stage for future functional studies aimed at identifying the exact role of key factors in the Drosophila immune response against nematode-bacteria complexes. More... »

PAGES

519

References to SciGraph publications

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    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26162375


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    34 schema:description BackgroundDrosophila melanogaster activates a variety of immune responses against microbial infections. However, information on the Drosophila immune response to entomopathogenic nematode infections is currently limited. The nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora is an insect parasite that forms a mutualistic relationship with the gram-negative bacteria Photorhabdus luminescens. Following infection, the nematodes release the bacteria that quickly multiply within the insect and produce several toxins that eventually kill the host. Although we currently know that the insect immune system interacts with Photorhabdus, information on interaction with the nematode vector is scarce.ResultsHere we have used next generation RNA-sequencing to analyze the transcriptional profile of wild-type adult flies infected by axenic Heterorhabditis nematodes (lacking Photorhabdus bacteria), symbiotic Heterorhabditis nematodes (carrying Photorhabdus bacteria), and Photorhabdus bacteria alone. We have obtained approximately 54 million reads from the different infection treatments. Bioinformatic analysis shows that infection with Photorhabdus alters the transcription of a large number of Drosophila genes involved in translational repression as well in response to stress. However, Heterorhabditis infection alters the transcription of several genes that participate in lipidhomeostasis and metabolism, stress responses, DNA/protein sythesis and neuronal functions. We have also identified genes in the fly with potential roles in nematode recognition, anti-nematode activity and nociception.ConclusionsThese findings provide fundamental information on the molecular events that take place in Drosophila upon infection with the two pathogens, either separately or together. Such large-scale transcriptomic analyses set the stage for future functional studies aimed at identifying the exact role of key factors in the Drosophila immune response against nematode-bacteria complexes.
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    41 Drosophila
    42 Drosophila genes
    43 Drosophila immune response
    44 Heterorhabditis bacteriophora
    45 Heterorhabditis nematodes
    46 Photorhabdus
    47 Photorhabdus bacteria
    48 RNA sequencing
    49 RNA-seq
    50 ResultsHere
    51 activity
    52 adult flies
    53 alters
    54 analysis
    55 anti
    56 anti-nematode activity
    57 bacteria
    58 bacteria Photorhabdus
    59 bacteriophora
    60 bioinformatics analysis
    61 complexes
    62 entomopathogenic nematode infection
    63 events
    64 exact role
    65 factors
    66 findings
    67 flies
    68 function
    69 functional studies
    70 fundamental information
    71 future functional studies
    72 genes
    73 host
    74 immune regulators
    75 immune response
    76 immune system
    77 infection
    78 infection alters
    79 infection treatment
    80 information
    81 insect immune system
    82 insect parasites
    83 insects
    84 interaction
    85 key factors
    86 large number
    87 large-scale transcriptomic analyses
    88 melanogaster
    89 metabolism
    90 microbial infections
    91 molecular events
    92 mutualistic relationship
    93 nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora
    94 nematode infection
    95 nematode vector
    96 nematode-bacteria complexes
    97 nematodes
    98 neuronal function
    99 next-generation RNA sequencing
    100 nociception
    101 number
    102 parasites
    103 pathogens
    104 place
    105 potential role
    106 profile
    107 reads
    108 recognition
    109 regulator
    110 relationship
    111 repression
    112 response
    113 role
    114 stage
    115 stress
    116 stress response
    117 study
    118 system
    119 sythesis
    120 toxin
    121 transcription
    122 transcriptional profiles
    123 transcriptomic analysis
    124 translational repression
    125 treatment
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