The germline of the malaria mosquito produces abundant miRNAs, endo-siRNAs, piRNAs and 29-nt small RNAs View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2015-12

AUTHORS

Leandro Castellano, Ermanno Rizzi, Jonathan Krell, Manlio Di Cristina, Roberto Galizi, Ayako Mori, Janis Tam, Gianluca De Bellis, Justin Stebbing, Andrea Crisanti, Tony Nolan

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Small RNAs include different classes essential for endogenous gene regulation and cellular defence against genomic parasites. However, a comprehensive analysis of the small RNA pathways in the germline of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae has never been performed despite their potential relevance to reproductive capacity in this malaria vector. RESULTS: We performed small RNA deep sequencing during larval and adult gonadogenesis and find that they predominantly express four classes of regulatory small RNAs. We identified 45 novel miRNA precursors some of which were sex-biased and gonad-enriched , nearly doubling the number of previously known miRNA loci. We also determine multiple genomic clusters of 24-30 nt Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) that map to transposable elements (TEs) and 3'UTR of protein coding genes. Unusually, many TEs and the 3'UTR of some endogenous genes produce an abundant peak of 29-nt small RNAs with piRNA-like characteristics. Moreover, both sense and antisense piRNAs from TEs in both Anopheles gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster reveal novel features of piRNA sequence bias. We also discovered endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) that map to overlapping transcripts and TEs. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first description of the germline miRNome in a mosquito species and should prove a valuable resource for understanding gene regulation that underlies gametogenesis and reproductive capacity. We also provide the first evidence of a piRNA pathway that is active against transposons in the germline and our findings suggest novel piRNA sequence bias. The contribution of small RNA pathways to germline TE regulation and genome defence in general is an important finding for approaches aimed at manipulating mosquito populations through the use of selfish genetic elements. More... »

PAGES

100

References to SciGraph publications

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12864-015-1257-2

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-015-1257-2

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029519949

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25766668


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