Estimation of loss of genetic diversity in modern Japanese cultivars by comparison of diverse genetic resources in Asian pear (Pyrus ... View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2016-06-14

AUTHORS

Sogo Nishio, Norio Takada, Toshihiro Saito, Toshiya Yamamoto, Hiroyuki Iketani

ABSTRACT

BackgroundPears (Pyrus spp.) are one of the most important fruit crops in temperate regions. Japanese pear breeding has been carried out for over 100 years, working to release new cultivars that have good fruit quality and other desirable traits. Local cultivar ‘Nijisseiki’ and its relatives, which have excellent fruit texture, have been repeatedly used as parents in the breeding program. This strategy has led to inbreeding within recent cultivars and selections. To avoid inbreeding depression, we need to clarify the degree of inbreeding among crossbred cultivars and to introgress genetic resources that are genetically different from modern cultivars and selections. The objective of the present study was to clarify the genetic relatedness between modern Japanese pear cultivars and diverse Asian pear genetic resources.ResultsWe genotyped 207 diverse accessions by using 19 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The heterozygosity and allelic richness of modern cultivars was obviously decreased compared with that of wild individuals, Chinese pear cultivars, and local cultivars. In analyses using Structure software, the 207 accessions were classified into four clusters (K = 4): one consisting primarily of wild individuals, one of Chinese pear cultivars, one of local cultivars from outside the Kanto region, and one containing both local cultivars from the Kanto region and crossbred cultivars. The results of principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) were similar to those from the Structure analysis. Wild individuals and Chinese pears appeared to be distinct from other groups, and crossbred cultivars became closer to ‘Nijisseiki’ as the year of release became more recent.ConclusionsBoth Structure and PCoA results suggest that the modern Japanese pear cultivars are genetically close to local cultivars that originated in the Kanto region, and that the genotypes of the modern cultivars were markedly biased toward ‘Nijisseiki’. Introgression of germplasm from Chinese pear and wild individuals that are genetically different from modern cultivars seems to be key to broadening the genetic diversity of Japanese pear. The information obtained in this study will be useful for pear breeders and other fruit breeders who have observed inbreeding depression. More... »

PAGES

81

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    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12863-016-0380-7

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    32 schema:description BackgroundPears (Pyrus spp.) are one of the most important fruit crops in temperate regions. Japanese pear breeding has been carried out for over 100 years, working to release new cultivars that have good fruit quality and other desirable traits. Local cultivar ‘Nijisseiki’ and its relatives, which have excellent fruit texture, have been repeatedly used as parents in the breeding program. This strategy has led to inbreeding within recent cultivars and selections. To avoid inbreeding depression, we need to clarify the degree of inbreeding among crossbred cultivars and to introgress genetic resources that are genetically different from modern cultivars and selections. The objective of the present study was to clarify the genetic relatedness between modern Japanese pear cultivars and diverse Asian pear genetic resources.ResultsWe genotyped 207 diverse accessions by using 19 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The heterozygosity and allelic richness of modern cultivars was obviously decreased compared with that of wild individuals, Chinese pear cultivars, and local cultivars. In analyses using Structure software, the 207 accessions were classified into four clusters (K = 4): one consisting primarily of wild individuals, one of Chinese pear cultivars, one of local cultivars from outside the Kanto region, and one containing both local cultivars from the Kanto region and crossbred cultivars. The results of principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) were similar to those from the Structure analysis. Wild individuals and Chinese pears appeared to be distinct from other groups, and crossbred cultivars became closer to ‘Nijisseiki’ as the year of release became more recent.ConclusionsBoth Structure and PCoA results suggest that the modern Japanese pear cultivars are genetically close to local cultivars that originated in the Kanto region, and that the genotypes of the modern cultivars were markedly biased toward ‘Nijisseiki’. Introgression of germplasm from Chinese pear and wild individuals that are genetically different from modern cultivars seems to be key to broadening the genetic diversity of Japanese pear. The information obtained in this study will be useful for pear breeders and other fruit breeders who have observed inbreeding depression.
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    39 Chinese pear
    40 Chinese pear cultivars
    41 Japanese cultivars
    42 Japanese pear
    43 Japanese pear breeding
    44 Japanese pear cultivars
    45 Kanto region
    46 Nijisseiki
    47 PCoA results
    48 ResultsWe
    49 STRUCTURE software
    50 accessions
    51 allelic richness
    52 analysis
    53 breeders
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    57 comparison
    58 crops
    59 cultivars
    60 degree
    61 depression
    62 desirable traits
    63 diverse accessions
    64 diverse genetic resources
    65 diversity
    66 estimation
    67 estimation of losses
    68 fruit breeders
    69 fruit crops
    70 fruit quality
    71 fruit texture
    72 genetic diversity
    73 genetic relatedness
    74 genetic resources
    75 genotypes
    76 germplasm
    77 good fruit quality
    78 group
    79 heterozygosity
    80 important fruit crop
    81 inbreeding depression
    82 individuals
    83 information
    84 introgression
    85 introgression of germplasm
    86 local cultivars
    87 loss
    88 markers
    89 modern Japanese cultivars
    90 modern cultivars
    91 new cultivars
    92 objective
    93 parents
    94 pear
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    96 pear cultivars
    97 pear genetic resources
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    103 region
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    113 sequence repeat markers
    114 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers
    115 software
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