The mite Acarus farris inducing defensive behaviors and reducing fitness of termite Coptotermes formosanus: implications for phoresy as a precursor ... View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2022-06-21

AUTHORS

Yong Chen, Lijun Zhang, Shijun Zhang, Bingrong Liu, Wenhui Zeng, Zhiqiang Li

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe ecology and evolution of phoretic mites and termites have not been well studied. In particular, it is unknown whether the specific relationship between mites and termites is commensal or parasitic. High phoretic mite densities have often been found to occur in weak termite colonies, suggesting that the relationship is closer to that of parasitism than commensalism.ResultsTo examine this, Coptotermes formosanus was used as a carrier, and Acarus farris as the phoretic mite. We used video recordings to observe termite social immunity behaviors and bioassay to examine termite fitness. Our results showed that the attachment of the mite on the termite can enhance termite social immunity behaviors like alarm vibration and grooming frequency while decreasing the duration of individual grooming episodes in phoretic mites. Further, A. farris phoresy led to a 22.91% reduction in termite abdomen volume and a 3.31-fold increase in termite mortality.ConclusionsWhen termites groom more frequently, the consequence is short duration of grooming bouts. This may be indicative of a trade-off which provides suggestive evidence that frequent social behaviors may cost termites energy. And this caused phoretic behavior hastened termites’ death, and helped propagate the population of mites feeding on dead termites. So, it provides a case for phoresy being a precursor to parasitism, and the specific relationship between A. farris and C. formosanus is closer to parasitism than to commensalism. More... »

PAGES

80

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12862-022-02036-3

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-022-02036-3

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1148829060

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/35729504


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