The evolution of opsin genes in five species of mirid bugs: duplication of long-wavelength opsins and loss of blue-sensitive opsins View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2021-04-26

AUTHORS

Pengjun Xu, Bin Lu, Jiangtao Chao, Robert Holdbrook, Gemei Liang, Yanhui Lu

ABSTRACT

BackgroundColor vision and phototactic behavior based on opsins are important for the fitness of insects because of their roles in foraging and mate choice. Related topics, including the duplication and loss of opsin genes, have been well investigated in insect orders such as Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Odonata and Orthoptera, and the findings have been used to develop pest management strategies involving light trapping. Mirid bugs of Hemiptera, which are pests that cause heavy economic losses, show capacity for color discrimination and phototaxis. However, the opsins in mirid bugs remain uncharacterized. Herein, we examined five species to investigate the evolution of opsins in the family Miridae.ResultsUsing RNA-seq, we identified several contigs showing high identity with opsins, including four contigs in Apolygus lucorum and three contigs each in Adelphocoris suturalis, Adelphocoris fasciaticollis, Adelphocoris lineolatus and Nesidiocoris tenuis. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that one of these genes clustered with ultraviolet-sensitive (UV) opsins and that the others clustered with long-wavelength (LW) opsins, suggesting that duplication of LW opsins and loss of blue light-sensitive (B) opsins occurred in mirid bugs. The existence of introns in the LW opsins of mirid bugs suggested that the duplication events were DNA based. Both LW1 and LW2 opsins of mirid bugs were found to be under strong purifying selection. The LW1 opsins were significantly more highly expressed than the LW2 and UV opsins.ConclusionsWe identified the opsins of mirid bugs using five selected mirid species as a representative sample. Phylogenetic analyses clustered one of the genes with UV opsins and the others with LW opsins, suggesting the occurrence of LW opsin duplication and B opsin loss during the evolution of mirid bugs. Intron detection suggested that the identified duplication event was DNA based. The evidence of strong purifying selection and the relatively high expression levels suggested that these opsins exhibit fundamental functions in mirid bugs. More... »

PAGES

66

References to SciGraph publications

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    31 schema:description BackgroundColor vision and phototactic behavior based on opsins are important for the fitness of insects because of their roles in foraging and mate choice. Related topics, including the duplication and loss of opsin genes, have been well investigated in insect orders such as Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Odonata and Orthoptera, and the findings have been used to develop pest management strategies involving light trapping. Mirid bugs of Hemiptera, which are pests that cause heavy economic losses, show capacity for color discrimination and phototaxis. However, the opsins in mirid bugs remain uncharacterized. Herein, we examined five species to investigate the evolution of opsins in the family Miridae.ResultsUsing RNA-seq, we identified several contigs showing high identity with opsins, including four contigs in Apolygus lucorum and three contigs each in Adelphocoris suturalis, Adelphocoris fasciaticollis, Adelphocoris lineolatus and Nesidiocoris tenuis. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that one of these genes clustered with ultraviolet-sensitive (UV) opsins and that the others clustered with long-wavelength (LW) opsins, suggesting that duplication of LW opsins and loss of blue light-sensitive (B) opsins occurred in mirid bugs. The existence of introns in the LW opsins of mirid bugs suggested that the duplication events were DNA based. Both LW1 and LW2 opsins of mirid bugs were found to be under strong purifying selection. The LW1 opsins were significantly more highly expressed than the LW2 and UV opsins.ConclusionsWe identified the opsins of mirid bugs using five selected mirid species as a representative sample. Phylogenetic analyses clustered one of the genes with UV opsins and the others with LW opsins, suggesting the occurrence of LW opsin duplication and B opsin loss during the evolution of mirid bugs. Intron detection suggested that the identified duplication event was DNA based. The evidence of strong purifying selection and the relatively high expression levels suggested that these opsins exhibit fundamental functions in mirid bugs.
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    37 schema:keywords Adelphocoris fasciaticollis
    38 Adelphocoris lineolatus
    39 Adelphocoris suturalis
    40 Apolygus lucorum
    41 Coleoptera
    42 ConclusionsWe
    43 DNA
    44 Hemiptera
    45 Herein
    46 Hymenoptera
    47 LW1
    48 LW2
    49 LWS opsins
    50 Lepidoptera
    51 Miridae
    52 Nesidiocoris tenuis
    53 Odonata
    54 Orthoptera
    55 RNA-seq
    56 UV opsin
    57 analysis
    58 behavior
    59 blue-light sensitive opsin
    60 blue-sensitive opsin
    61 bugs
    62 capacity
    63 choice
    64 color discrimination
    65 contigs
    66 detection
    67 discrimination
    68 duplication
    69 duplication events
    70 economic losses
    71 events
    72 evidence
    73 evolution
    74 evolution of opsins
    75 existence
    76 existence of introns
    77 expression levels
    78 family Miridae
    79 findings
    80 fitness
    81 fitness of insects
    82 foraging
    83 function
    84 fundamental functions
    85 genes
    86 heavy economic losses
    87 high expression levels
    88 high identity
    89 identity
    90 insect orders
    91 insects
    92 introns
    93 levels
    94 light-sensitive opsins
    95 lineolatus
    96 long-wavelength opsin
    97 loss
    98 lucorum
    99 management strategies
    100 mate choice
    101 mirid bugs
    102 mirid species
    103 occurrence
    104 opsin
    105 opsin duplication
    106 opsin genes
    107 order
    108 pest management strategies
    109 pests
    110 phototactic behavior
    111 phototaxis
    112 phylogenetic analysis
    113 related topics
    114 representative sample
    115 role
    116 samples
    117 selection
    118 species
    119 strategies
    120 suturalis
    121 tenuis
    122 topic
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    124 vision
    125 schema:name The evolution of opsin genes in five species of mirid bugs: duplication of long-wavelength opsins and loss of blue-sensitive opsins
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