Distinct genetic differentiation and species diversification within two marine nematodes with different habitat preference in Antarctic sediments View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2017-05-30

AUTHORS

Freija Hauquier, Frederik Leliaert, Annelien Rigaux, Sofie Derycke, Ann Vanreusel

ABSTRACT

BackgroundDispersal ability, population genetic structure and species divergence in marine nematodes are still poorly understood, especially in remote areas such as the Southern Ocean. We investigated genetic differentiation of species and populations of the free-living endobenthic nematode genera Sabatieria and Desmodora using nuclear 18S rDNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene sequences. Specimens were collected at continental shelf depths (200–500 m) near the Antarctic Peninsula, Scotia Arc and eastern side of the Weddell Sea. The two nematode genera co-occurred at all sampled locations, but with different vertical distribution in the sediment. A combination of phylogenetic (GMYC, Bayesian Inference, Maximum Likelihood) and population genetic (AMOVA) analyses were used for species delimitation and assessment of gene flow between sampling locations.ResultsSequence analyses resulted in the delimitation of four divergent species lineages in Sabatieria, two of which could not be discriminated morphologically and most likely constitute cryptic species. Two species were recognised in Desmodora, one of which showed large intraspecific morphological variation. Both genera comprised species that were restricted to one side of the Weddell Sea and species that were widely spread across it. Population genetic structuring was highly significant and more pronounced in the deeper sediment-dwelling Sabatieria species, which are generally less prone to resuspension and passive dispersal in the water column than surface Desmodora species.ConclusionsOur results indicate that gene flow is restricted at large geographic distance in the Southern Ocean, which casts doubt on the efficiency of the Weddell gyre and Antarctic Circumpolar Current in facilitating circum-Antarctic nematode species distributions. We also show that genetic structuring and cryptic speciation can be very different in nematode species isolated from the same geographic area, but with different habitat preferences (surface versus deeper sediment layers). More... »

PAGES

120

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    35 schema:description BackgroundDispersal ability, population genetic structure and species divergence in marine nematodes are still poorly understood, especially in remote areas such as the Southern Ocean. We investigated genetic differentiation of species and populations of the free-living endobenthic nematode genera Sabatieria and Desmodora using nuclear 18S rDNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene sequences. Specimens were collected at continental shelf depths (200–500 m) near the Antarctic Peninsula, Scotia Arc and eastern side of the Weddell Sea. The two nematode genera co-occurred at all sampled locations, but with different vertical distribution in the sediment. A combination of phylogenetic (GMYC, Bayesian Inference, Maximum Likelihood) and population genetic (AMOVA) analyses were used for species delimitation and assessment of gene flow between sampling locations.ResultsSequence analyses resulted in the delimitation of four divergent species lineages in Sabatieria, two of which could not be discriminated morphologically and most likely constitute cryptic species. Two species were recognised in Desmodora, one of which showed large intraspecific morphological variation. Both genera comprised species that were restricted to one side of the Weddell Sea and species that were widely spread across it. Population genetic structuring was highly significant and more pronounced in the deeper sediment-dwelling Sabatieria species, which are generally less prone to resuspension and passive dispersal in the water column than surface Desmodora species.ConclusionsOur results indicate that gene flow is restricted at large geographic distance in the Southern Ocean, which casts doubt on the efficiency of the Weddell gyre and Antarctic Circumpolar Current in facilitating circum-Antarctic nematode species distributions. We also show that genetic structuring and cryptic speciation can be very different in nematode species isolated from the same geographic area, but with different habitat preferences (surface versus deeper sediment layers).
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    41 schema:keywords Antarctic Circumpolar Current
    42 Antarctic Peninsula
    43 Antarctic sediments
    44 CO
    45 Circumpolar Current
    46 ConclusionsOur results
    47 Desmodora
    48 I gene sequences
    49 Ocean
    50 Peninsula
    51 ResultsSequence analysis
    52 Sabatieria
    53 Scotia Arc
    54 Sea
    55 Southern Ocean
    56 Weddell Gyre
    57 Weddell Sea
    58 ability
    59 analysis
    60 arc
    61 area
    62 assessment
    63 column
    64 combination
    65 combination of phylogenetics
    66 continental shelf depths
    67 cryptic speciation
    68 cryptic species
    69 current
    70 cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences
    71 delimitation
    72 depth
    73 different habitat preferences
    74 different vertical distributions
    75 differentiation
    76 dispersal
    77 distance
    78 distinct genetic differentiation
    79 distribution
    80 divergence
    81 diversification
    82 doubt
    83 eastern side
    84 efficiency
    85 flow
    86 gene flow
    87 gene sequences
    88 genetic analysis
    89 genetic differentiation
    90 genetic structure
    91 genetic structuring
    92 genus
    93 genus Sabatieria
    94 geographic areas
    95 geographic distance
    96 gyre
    97 habitat preferences
    98 intraspecific morphological variation
    99 large geographic distances
    100 lineages
    101 location
    102 marine nematodes
    103 mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences
    104 morphological variation
    105 nematode species
    106 nematodes
    107 passive dispersal
    108 phylogenetics
    109 population
    110 population genetic analyses
    111 population genetic structure
    112 population genetic structuring
    113 preferences
    114 rDNA
    115 remote areas
    116 results
    117 resuspension
    118 same geographic area
    119 sediments
    120 sequence
    121 shelf depths
    122 side
    123 spacer rDNA
    124 speciation
    125 species
    126 species delimitation
    127 species distribution
    128 species diversification
    129 species lineages
    130 specimens
    131 structure
    132 structuring
    133 variation
    134 vertical distribution
    135 water column
    136 schema:name Distinct genetic differentiation and species diversification within two marine nematodes with different habitat preference in Antarctic sediments
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