pulver: an R package for parallel ultra-rapid p-value computation for linear regression interaction terms View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2017-12

AUTHORS

Sophie Molnos, Clemens Baumbach, Simone Wahl, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Konstantin Strauch, Rui Wang-Sattler, Melanie Waldenberger, Thomas Meitinger, Jerzy Adamski, Gabi Kastenmüller, Karsten Suhre, Annette Peters, Harald Grallert, Fabian J. Theis, Christian Gieger

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies allow us to understand the genetics of complex diseases. Human metabolism provides information about the disease-causing mechanisms, so it is usual to investigate the associations between genetic variants and metabolite levels. However, only considering genetic variants and their effects on one trait ignores the possible interplay between different "omics" layers. Existing tools only consider single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-SNP interactions, and no practical tool is available for large-scale investigations of the interactions between pairs of arbitrary quantitative variables. RESULTS: We developed an R package called pulver to compute p-values for the interaction term in a very large number of linear regression models. Comparisons based on simulated data showed that pulver is much faster than the existing tools. This is achieved by using the correlation coefficient to test the null-hypothesis, which avoids the costly computation of inversions. Additional tricks are a rearrangement of the order, when iterating through the different "omics" layers, and implementing this algorithm in the fast programming language C++. Furthermore, we applied our algorithm to data from the German KORA study to investigate a real-world problem involving the interplay among DNA methylation, genetic variants, and metabolite levels. CONCLUSIONS: The pulver package is a convenient and rapid tool for screening huge numbers of linear regression models for significant interaction terms in arbitrary pairs of quantitative variables. pulver is written in R and C++, and can be downloaded freely from CRAN at https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/pulver/ . More... »

PAGES

429

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12859-017-1838-y

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12859-017-1838-y

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091997320

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28962546


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0604", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Genetics", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/06", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Biological Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Algorithms", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Computer Simulation", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "CpG Islands", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Humans", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Linear Models", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Software", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Time Factors", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "German Center for Diabetes Research", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.452622.5", 
          "name": [
            "Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum M\u00fcnchen, Neuherberg, Germany", 
            "Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum M\u00fcnchen, Neuherberg, Germany", 
            "German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Neuherberg, Germany"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Molnos", 
        "givenName": "Sophie", 
        "id": "sg:person.0733367341.54", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0733367341.54"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "German Center for Diabetes Research", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.452622.5", 
          "name": [
            "Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum M\u00fcnchen, Neuherberg, Germany", 
            "Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum M\u00fcnchen, Neuherberg, Germany", 
            "German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Neuherberg, Germany"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Baumbach", 
        "givenName": "Clemens", 
        "id": "sg:person.01026222506.66", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01026222506.66"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "German Center for Diabetes Research", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.452622.5", 
          "name": [
            "Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum M\u00fcnchen, Neuherberg, Germany", 
            "Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum M\u00fcnchen, Neuherberg, Germany", 
            "German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Neuherberg, Germany"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Wahl", 
        "givenName": "Simone", 
        "id": "sg:person.01165012334.27", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01165012334.27"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "German Centre for Cardiovascular Research", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.452396.f", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Medicine I, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universit\u00e4t, Munich, Germany", 
            "Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum M\u00fcnchen, Neuherberg, Germany", 
            "Chair of Genetic Epidemiology, IBE, Faculty of Medicine, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany", 
            "DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich, Germany"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "M\u00fcller-Nurasyid", 
        "givenName": "Martina", 
        "id": "sg:person.01367042426.41", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01367042426.41"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5252.0", 
          "name": [
            "Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum M\u00fcnchen, Neuherberg, Germany", 
            "Chair of Genetic Epidemiology, IBE, Faculty of Medicine, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Strauch", 
        "givenName": "Konstantin", 
        "id": "sg:person.01352171051.53", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01352171051.53"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Helmholtz Zentrum M\u00fcnchen", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4567.0", 
          "name": [
            "Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum M\u00fcnchen, Neuherberg, Germany", 
            "Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum M\u00fcnchen, Neuherberg, Germany"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Wang-Sattler", 
        "givenName": "Rui", 
        "id": "sg:person.0656473147.13", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0656473147.13"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Helmholtz Zentrum M\u00fcnchen", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4567.0", 
          "name": [
            "Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum M\u00fcnchen, Neuherberg, Germany", 
            "Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum M\u00fcnchen, Neuherberg, Germany"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Waldenberger", 
        "givenName": "Melanie", 
        "id": "sg:person.0611237150.50", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0611237150.50"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Technical University Munich", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.6936.a", 
          "name": [
            "Institute of Human Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum M\u00fcnchen, Neuherberg, Germany", 
            "Institute of Human Genetics, Technische Universit\u00e4t M\u00fcnchen, Munich, Germany"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Meitinger", 
        "givenName": "Thomas", 
        "id": "sg:person.015725517277.33", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015725517277.33"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Technical University Munich", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.6936.a", 
          "name": [
            "German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Neuherberg, Germany", 
            "Genome Analysis Center, Helmholtz Zentrum M\u00fcnchen, Neuherberg, Germany", 
            "Institute of Experimental Genetics, Technical University of Munich, Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Adamski", 
        "givenName": "Jerzy", 
        "id": "sg:person.01227277645.30", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01227277645.30"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "King's College London", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.13097.3c", 
          "name": [
            "Institute of Bioinformatics and Systems Biology, Helmholtz Zentrum M\u00fcnchen, Neuherberg, Germany", 
            "Department of Twins Research and Genetic Epidemiology, Kings College, London, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Kastenm\u00fcller", 
        "givenName": "Gabi", 
        "id": "sg:person.0620106734.75", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0620106734.75"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.416973.e", 
          "name": [
            "Institute of Bioinformatics and Systems Biology, Helmholtz Zentrum M\u00fcnchen, Neuherberg, Germany", 
            "Department of Biophysics and Physiology, Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, Doha, Qatar"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Suhre", 
        "givenName": "Karsten", 
        "id": "sg:person.01113051245.30", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01113051245.30"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "German Center for Diabetes Research", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.452622.5", 
          "name": [
            "Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum M\u00fcnchen, Neuherberg, Germany", 
            "Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum M\u00fcnchen, Neuherberg, Germany", 
            "German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Neuherberg, Germany"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Peters", 
        "givenName": "Annette", 
        "id": "sg:person.01117072553.44", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01117072553.44"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "German Center for Diabetes Research", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.452622.5", 
          "name": [
            "Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum M\u00fcnchen, Neuherberg, Germany", 
            "Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum M\u00fcnchen, Neuherberg, Germany", 
            "German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Neuherberg, Germany"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Grallert", 
        "givenName": "Harald", 
        "id": "sg:person.0712635675.19", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0712635675.19"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Technical University Munich", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.6936.a", 
          "name": [
            "Institute of Computational Biology, Helmholtz Zentrum M\u00fcnchen, Neuherberg, Germany", 
            "Department of Mathematics, Technische Universitat M\u00fcnchen, Garching, Germany"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Theis", 
        "givenName": "Fabian J.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01304403211.40", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01304403211.40"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "German Center for Diabetes Research", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.452622.5", 
          "name": [
            "Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum M\u00fcnchen, Neuherberg, Germany", 
            "Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum M\u00fcnchen, Neuherberg, Germany", 
            "German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Neuherberg, Germany"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Gieger", 
        "givenName": "Christian", 
        "id": "sg:person.011673465237.05", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011673465237.05"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ng.507", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003091868", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.507"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ng.507", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003091868", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.507"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms8208", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003527515", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms8208"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/gepi.21992", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003754141"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btr172", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008541409"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2016.04.009", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011872202"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddv263", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018784661"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0014040", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020327061"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.4161/epi.23470", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023015244"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ng.1073", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027410569", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.1073"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nrg3230", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028633739", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nrg3230"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2011.07.007", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029288477"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddt430", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032123006"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2005-858226", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035992926"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bts163", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036235772"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gks550", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038182914"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature10354", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040072135", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10354"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ng.2982", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044995197", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.2982"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2014.03.016", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047086704"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2014.03.016", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047086704"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2014.03.016", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047086704"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2105-13-86", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047392734", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-13-86"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2105-13-86", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047392734", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-13-86"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000200", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051917911"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000200", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051917911"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.4867.1", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053398429"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1089/cmb.2015.0202", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059246331"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v040.i08", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1068672602"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v045.i03", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1068672674"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.115.112987", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1071753589"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2017-12", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2017-12-01", 
    "description": "BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies allow us to understand the genetics of complex diseases. Human metabolism provides information about the disease-causing mechanisms, so it is usual to investigate the associations between genetic variants and metabolite levels. However, only considering genetic variants and their effects on one trait ignores the possible interplay between different \"omics\" layers. Existing tools only consider single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-SNP interactions, and no practical tool is available for large-scale investigations of the interactions between pairs of arbitrary quantitative variables.\nRESULTS: We developed an R package called pulver to compute p-values for the interaction term in a very large number of linear regression models. Comparisons based on simulated data showed that pulver is much faster than the existing tools. This is achieved by using the correlation coefficient to test the null-hypothesis, which avoids the costly computation of inversions. Additional tricks are a rearrangement of the order, when iterating through the different \"omics\" layers, and implementing this algorithm in the fast programming language C++. Furthermore, we applied our algorithm to data from the German KORA study to investigate a real-world problem involving the interplay among DNA methylation, genetic variants, and metabolite levels.\nCONCLUSIONS: The pulver package is a convenient and rapid tool for screening huge numbers of linear regression models for significant interaction terms in arbitrary pairs of quantitative variables. pulver is written in R and C++, and can be downloaded freely from CRAN at https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/pulver/ .", 
    "genre": "research_article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s12859-017-1838-y", 
    "inLanguage": [
      "en"
    ], 
    "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1023786", 
        "issn": [
          "1471-2105"
        ], 
        "name": "BMC Bioinformatics", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "1", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "18"
      }
    ], 
    "name": "pulver: an R package for parallel ultra-rapid p-value computation for linear regression interaction terms", 
    "pagination": "429", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "readcube_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "5ab2d41e6b5c1d82e4e2af2e2c45f327ebf42237971935b33b0c97cd3cd80aee"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "28962546"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "100965194"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1186/s12859-017-1838-y"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1091997320"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1186/s12859-017-1838-y", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091997320"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-10T21:42", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8687_00000541.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "https://link.springer.com/10.1186%2Fs12859-017-1838-y"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12859-017-1838-y'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12859-017-1838-y'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12859-017-1838-y'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12859-017-1838-y'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

313 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      62 URIs      29 LITERALS      17 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1186/s12859-017-1838-y schema:about N1212e4954f37403db5a4aefb4bdcca03
2 N384848f5215240b8b120b47278485146
3 N53afffc0cf8d4245b370b5aaed92bcc6
4 N7716086343a447cd840e66cf88948fd0
5 N895bf2ac0f464db6bc6d01ff0cb35585
6 Nbaa87abfbbc24af5a89d3804b22d2445
7 Ncf0479b8655c4fe8b1de6e1dd31ef189
8 Nddf4579aaa71487da786da064cad2c26
9 anzsrc-for:06
10 anzsrc-for:0604
11 schema:author N92786f59b6a94c279cee8fb93499047a
12 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1038/nature10354
13 sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms8208
14 sg:pub.10.1038/ng.1073
15 sg:pub.10.1038/ng.2982
16 sg:pub.10.1038/ng.507
17 sg:pub.10.1038/nrg3230
18 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2105-13-86
19 https://doi.org/10.1002/gepi.21992
20 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2014.03.016
21 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2016.04.009
22 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2011.07.007
23 https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2005-858226
24 https://doi.org/10.1089/cmb.2015.0202
25 https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btr172
26 https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bts163
27 https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddt430
28 https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddv263
29 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gks550
30 https://doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000200
31 https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.4867.1
32 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0014040
33 https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v040.i08
34 https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v045.i03
35 https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.115.112987
36 https://doi.org/10.4161/epi.23470
37 schema:datePublished 2017-12
38 schema:datePublishedReg 2017-12-01
39 schema:description BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies allow us to understand the genetics of complex diseases. Human metabolism provides information about the disease-causing mechanisms, so it is usual to investigate the associations between genetic variants and metabolite levels. However, only considering genetic variants and their effects on one trait ignores the possible interplay between different "omics" layers. Existing tools only consider single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-SNP interactions, and no practical tool is available for large-scale investigations of the interactions between pairs of arbitrary quantitative variables. RESULTS: We developed an R package called pulver to compute p-values for the interaction term in a very large number of linear regression models. Comparisons based on simulated data showed that pulver is much faster than the existing tools. This is achieved by using the correlation coefficient to test the null-hypothesis, which avoids the costly computation of inversions. Additional tricks are a rearrangement of the order, when iterating through the different "omics" layers, and implementing this algorithm in the fast programming language C++. Furthermore, we applied our algorithm to data from the German KORA study to investigate a real-world problem involving the interplay among DNA methylation, genetic variants, and metabolite levels. CONCLUSIONS: The pulver package is a convenient and rapid tool for screening huge numbers of linear regression models for significant interaction terms in arbitrary pairs of quantitative variables. pulver is written in R and C++, and can be downloaded freely from CRAN at https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/pulver/ .
40 schema:genre research_article
41 schema:inLanguage en
42 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
43 schema:isPartOf N3833b6c9f03c4ab5b1f36a9de94df3a5
44 Nd88f9a90d55b42019c865304e5f18d64
45 sg:journal.1023786
46 schema:name pulver: an R package for parallel ultra-rapid p-value computation for linear regression interaction terms
47 schema:pagination 429
48 schema:productId N2079bf5ece924b70a96480773055c2dc
49 N38e0954dfbb249028b524d379aa3c37f
50 N4505169b845e4b3cafa228ebc88f9a9e
51 N6af60bf5905d419380ca8c607bfa4458
52 Nb1129c696c8e4adfbe99204cc620d37f
53 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091997320
54 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12859-017-1838-y
55 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-10T21:42
56 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
57 schema:sdPublisher N21bfd5dfbd4145448eb0f96e187ba127
58 schema:url https://link.springer.com/10.1186%2Fs12859-017-1838-y
59 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
60 sgo:sdDataset articles
61 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
62 N1212e4954f37403db5a4aefb4bdcca03 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
63 schema:name Algorithms
64 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
65 N1713076f0790408789b8778d4b8eb34c rdf:first sg:person.01165012334.27
66 rdf:rest Nc6a71fec432d4166abd538e2fb4e7e59
67 N179f090e340d47cebbfabfbe41933280 rdf:first sg:person.015725517277.33
68 rdf:rest N5e9a20ecf1284adea820f95e61f0b4b1
69 N1926e2254d2548418e5fd8a75cc712a5 rdf:first sg:person.0712635675.19
70 rdf:rest N76b0f78d0baf4db484ecf43b400e92c6
71 N2079bf5ece924b70a96480773055c2dc schema:name doi
72 schema:value 10.1186/s12859-017-1838-y
73 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
74 N21bfd5dfbd4145448eb0f96e187ba127 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
75 rdf:type schema:Organization
76 N3058f3bad510437a8a2c2e21b63ab05d rdf:first sg:person.01113051245.30
77 rdf:rest N3863f3729e884e92bf76fe5df41acbb9
78 N3833b6c9f03c4ab5b1f36a9de94df3a5 schema:volumeNumber 18
79 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
80 N384848f5215240b8b120b47278485146 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
81 schema:name Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
82 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
83 N3863f3729e884e92bf76fe5df41acbb9 rdf:first sg:person.01117072553.44
84 rdf:rest N1926e2254d2548418e5fd8a75cc712a5
85 N38e0954dfbb249028b524d379aa3c37f schema:name dimensions_id
86 schema:value pub.1091997320
87 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
88 N4505169b845e4b3cafa228ebc88f9a9e schema:name readcube_id
89 schema:value 5ab2d41e6b5c1d82e4e2af2e2c45f327ebf42237971935b33b0c97cd3cd80aee
90 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
91 N53afffc0cf8d4245b370b5aaed92bcc6 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
92 schema:name CpG Islands
93 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
94 N58a64bc12363473d983004fa046bf3d1 rdf:first sg:person.0656473147.13
95 rdf:rest Nd283a07759e8476a968aa144540f8544
96 N5e9a20ecf1284adea820f95e61f0b4b1 rdf:first sg:person.01227277645.30
97 rdf:rest Na712d37afc5944209acac2a5985923a0
98 N6af60bf5905d419380ca8c607bfa4458 schema:name pubmed_id
99 schema:value 28962546
100 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
101 N76b0f78d0baf4db484ecf43b400e92c6 rdf:first sg:person.01304403211.40
102 rdf:rest Na2de4350998d472a901a4f4a4637b3d8
103 N7716086343a447cd840e66cf88948fd0 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
104 schema:name Software
105 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
106 N895bf2ac0f464db6bc6d01ff0cb35585 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
107 schema:name Linear Models
108 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
109 N92786f59b6a94c279cee8fb93499047a rdf:first sg:person.0733367341.54
110 rdf:rest N959f2797dacd476ead3766bea5857a0d
111 N959f2797dacd476ead3766bea5857a0d rdf:first sg:person.01026222506.66
112 rdf:rest N1713076f0790408789b8778d4b8eb34c
113 Na2de4350998d472a901a4f4a4637b3d8 rdf:first sg:person.011673465237.05
114 rdf:rest rdf:nil
115 Na712d37afc5944209acac2a5985923a0 rdf:first sg:person.0620106734.75
116 rdf:rest N3058f3bad510437a8a2c2e21b63ab05d
117 Nb1129c696c8e4adfbe99204cc620d37f schema:name nlm_unique_id
118 schema:value 100965194
119 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
120 Nbaa87abfbbc24af5a89d3804b22d2445 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
121 schema:name Humans
122 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
123 Nc6a71fec432d4166abd538e2fb4e7e59 rdf:first sg:person.01367042426.41
124 rdf:rest Nfb394b46e72942fd9687009c0307d65c
125 Ncf0479b8655c4fe8b1de6e1dd31ef189 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
126 schema:name Computer Simulation
127 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
128 Nd283a07759e8476a968aa144540f8544 rdf:first sg:person.0611237150.50
129 rdf:rest N179f090e340d47cebbfabfbe41933280
130 Nd88f9a90d55b42019c865304e5f18d64 schema:issueNumber 1
131 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
132 Nddf4579aaa71487da786da064cad2c26 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
133 schema:name Time Factors
134 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
135 Nfb394b46e72942fd9687009c0307d65c rdf:first sg:person.01352171051.53
136 rdf:rest N58a64bc12363473d983004fa046bf3d1
137 anzsrc-for:06 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
138 schema:name Biological Sciences
139 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
140 anzsrc-for:0604 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
141 schema:name Genetics
142 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
143 sg:journal.1023786 schema:issn 1471-2105
144 schema:name BMC Bioinformatics
145 rdf:type schema:Periodical
146 sg:person.01026222506.66 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.452622.5
147 schema:familyName Baumbach
148 schema:givenName Clemens
149 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01026222506.66
150 rdf:type schema:Person
151 sg:person.01113051245.30 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.416973.e
152 schema:familyName Suhre
153 schema:givenName Karsten
154 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01113051245.30
155 rdf:type schema:Person
156 sg:person.01117072553.44 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.452622.5
157 schema:familyName Peters
158 schema:givenName Annette
159 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01117072553.44
160 rdf:type schema:Person
161 sg:person.01165012334.27 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.452622.5
162 schema:familyName Wahl
163 schema:givenName Simone
164 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01165012334.27
165 rdf:type schema:Person
166 sg:person.011673465237.05 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.452622.5
167 schema:familyName Gieger
168 schema:givenName Christian
169 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011673465237.05
170 rdf:type schema:Person
171 sg:person.01227277645.30 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.6936.a
172 schema:familyName Adamski
173 schema:givenName Jerzy
174 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01227277645.30
175 rdf:type schema:Person
176 sg:person.01304403211.40 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.6936.a
177 schema:familyName Theis
178 schema:givenName Fabian J.
179 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01304403211.40
180 rdf:type schema:Person
181 sg:person.01352171051.53 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5252.0
182 schema:familyName Strauch
183 schema:givenName Konstantin
184 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01352171051.53
185 rdf:type schema:Person
186 sg:person.01367042426.41 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.452396.f
187 schema:familyName Müller-Nurasyid
188 schema:givenName Martina
189 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01367042426.41
190 rdf:type schema:Person
191 sg:person.015725517277.33 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.6936.a
192 schema:familyName Meitinger
193 schema:givenName Thomas
194 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015725517277.33
195 rdf:type schema:Person
196 sg:person.0611237150.50 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4567.0
197 schema:familyName Waldenberger
198 schema:givenName Melanie
199 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0611237150.50
200 rdf:type schema:Person
201 sg:person.0620106734.75 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.13097.3c
202 schema:familyName Kastenmüller
203 schema:givenName Gabi
204 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0620106734.75
205 rdf:type schema:Person
206 sg:person.0656473147.13 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4567.0
207 schema:familyName Wang-Sattler
208 schema:givenName Rui
209 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0656473147.13
210 rdf:type schema:Person
211 sg:person.0712635675.19 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.452622.5
212 schema:familyName Grallert
213 schema:givenName Harald
214 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0712635675.19
215 rdf:type schema:Person
216 sg:person.0733367341.54 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.452622.5
217 schema:familyName Molnos
218 schema:givenName Sophie
219 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0733367341.54
220 rdf:type schema:Person
221 sg:pub.10.1038/nature10354 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040072135
222 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10354
223 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
224 sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms8208 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003527515
225 https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms8208
226 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
227 sg:pub.10.1038/ng.1073 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027410569
228 https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.1073
229 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
230 sg:pub.10.1038/ng.2982 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044995197
231 https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.2982
232 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
233 sg:pub.10.1038/ng.507 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003091868
234 https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.507
235 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
236 sg:pub.10.1038/nrg3230 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028633739
237 https://doi.org/10.1038/nrg3230
238 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
239 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2105-13-86 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047392734
240 https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-13-86
241 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
242 https://doi.org/10.1002/gepi.21992 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003754141
243 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
244 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2014.03.016 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047086704
245 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
246 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2016.04.009 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011872202
247 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
248 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2011.07.007 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029288477
249 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
250 https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2005-858226 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035992926
251 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
252 https://doi.org/10.1089/cmb.2015.0202 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059246331
253 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
254 https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btr172 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008541409
255 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
256 https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bts163 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036235772
257 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
258 https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddt430 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032123006
259 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
260 https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddv263 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018784661
261 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
262 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gks550 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038182914
263 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
264 https://doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000200 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051917911
265 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
266 https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.4867.1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053398429
267 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
268 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0014040 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020327061
269 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
270 https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v040.i08 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1068672602
271 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
272 https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v045.i03 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1068672674
273 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
274 https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.115.112987 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1071753589
275 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
276 https://doi.org/10.4161/epi.23470 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023015244
277 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
278 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.13097.3c schema:alternateName King's College London
279 schema:name Department of Twins Research and Genetic Epidemiology, Kings College, London, UK
280 Institute of Bioinformatics and Systems Biology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany
281 rdf:type schema:Organization
282 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.416973.e schema:alternateName Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar
283 schema:name Department of Biophysics and Physiology, Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, Doha, Qatar
284 Institute of Bioinformatics and Systems Biology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany
285 rdf:type schema:Organization
286 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.452396.f schema:alternateName German Centre for Cardiovascular Research
287 schema:name Chair of Genetic Epidemiology, IBE, Faculty of Medicine, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany
288 DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich, Germany
289 Department of Medicine I, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany
290 Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany
291 rdf:type schema:Organization
292 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.452622.5 schema:alternateName German Center for Diabetes Research
293 schema:name German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Neuherberg, Germany
294 Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany
295 Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany
296 rdf:type schema:Organization
297 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4567.0 schema:alternateName Helmholtz Zentrum München
298 schema:name Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany
299 Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany
300 rdf:type schema:Organization
301 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5252.0 schema:alternateName Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich
302 schema:name Chair of Genetic Epidemiology, IBE, Faculty of Medicine, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany
303 Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany
304 rdf:type schema:Organization
305 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.6936.a schema:alternateName Technical University Munich
306 schema:name Department of Mathematics, Technische Universitat München, Garching, Germany
307 Genome Analysis Center, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany
308 German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Neuherberg, Germany
309 Institute of Computational Biology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany
310 Institute of Experimental Genetics, Technical University of Munich, Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany
311 Institute of Human Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany
312 Institute of Human Genetics, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany
313 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...