Human health risk exposure and ecological risk assessment of potentially toxic element pollution in agricultural soils in the district of ... View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2021-12-13

AUTHORS

Prince Chapman Agyeman, Kingsley John, Ndiye Michael Kebonye, Luboš Borůvka, Radim Vašát, Ondřej Drábek, Karel Němeček

ABSTRACT

BackgroundHuman activities considerably contribute to polluting potentially toxic element (PTEs) levels in soils, especially agricultural soils. The consistent introduction of PTEs in the environment and the soil pose health-related risks to humans, flora and fauna. One hundred and fifteen samples were collected in the district of Frydek Mistek (Czech Republic) in a regular grid form. The soil samples were air-dried, and the concentrations of PTEs (i.e. lead, arsenic, chromium, nickel, manganese, cadmium, copper, and zinc) were determined by ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry). The purpose of this study is to create digitized soil maps that expose the human-related health risks posed by PTEs, estimate pollution indices, ascertain the spatially distributed patterns of PTEs, source apportionment and quantify carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks using the sample location approach.ResultsThe results revealed that the pollution assessment of the soils in the study area using diverse pollution assessment indexes (pollution index, pollution load index, ecological risk and risk index), based on the application of the local background value and the European average value, displayed a range of pollution levels due to differences in the threshold limits from differing geochemical background levels. The principal components analysis and positive matrix factorization, respectively, identified the sources of pollution and the distribution of PTE sources. Mapping the health index and total carcinogenic risk highlighted hotspots of areas within the study area that require immediate remediation. The self-organizing map (SeOM) revealed a diversified colour pattern for the factor scores. A single neuron exhibited a high hotspot in all factor loadings on different blocks of neurons. Children’s CDItotal (Chronic Daily Intake total) values for non-carcinogenic risk and carcinogenic risk were found to be greater than adults’, as were their HQ (hazard quotients) and CR (carcinogenic risk) values. According to the health index of non-carcinogenic risk, 6.1% of the study area sampled posed a potential risk to children rather than adults. Corresponding to the sampled pointwise health risk assessment, 13.05% of the sampled locations are carcinogenic to children. The estimated health risk in the agricultural soil was high, with both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks that could threaten persons living in the study area, particularly children.ConclusionIn general, the continuous application of agriculturally related inputs such as phosphate fertilizers and other anthropogenic activities (e.g., steel industry) can increase the level of PTEs in soils. The use of mean, maximum, and minimum values in health risk estimation does not provide a comprehensive picture of a research area’s health state. This study recommends using a sampled pointwise or location health risks assessment approach, which allows researchers to identify high-risk environments that exceeds the recommended threshold as well as areas on the verge of becoming high risk, allowing for rapid remedial action. More... »

PAGES

137

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    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/s12302-021-00577-w

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12302-021-00577-w

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    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1143840576


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    32 schema:description BackgroundHuman activities considerably contribute to polluting potentially toxic element (PTEs) levels in soils, especially agricultural soils. The consistent introduction of PTEs in the environment and the soil pose health-related risks to humans, flora and fauna. One hundred and fifteen samples were collected in the district of Frydek Mistek (Czech Republic) in a regular grid form. The soil samples were air-dried, and the concentrations of PTEs (i.e. lead, arsenic, chromium, nickel, manganese, cadmium, copper, and zinc) were determined by ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry). The purpose of this study is to create digitized soil maps that expose the human-related health risks posed by PTEs, estimate pollution indices, ascertain the spatially distributed patterns of PTEs, source apportionment and quantify carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks using the sample location approach.ResultsThe results revealed that the pollution assessment of the soils in the study area using diverse pollution assessment indexes (pollution index, pollution load index, ecological risk and risk index), based on the application of the local background value and the European average value, displayed a range of pollution levels due to differences in the threshold limits from differing geochemical background levels. The principal components analysis and positive matrix factorization, respectively, identified the sources of pollution and the distribution of PTE sources. Mapping the health index and total carcinogenic risk highlighted hotspots of areas within the study area that require immediate remediation. The self-organizing map (SeOM) revealed a diversified colour pattern for the factor scores. A single neuron exhibited a high hotspot in all factor loadings on different blocks of neurons. Children’s CDItotal (Chronic Daily Intake total) values for non-carcinogenic risk and carcinogenic risk were found to be greater than adults’, as were their HQ (hazard quotients) and CR (carcinogenic risk) values. According to the health index of non-carcinogenic risk, 6.1% of the study area sampled posed a potential risk to children rather than adults. Corresponding to the sampled pointwise health risk assessment, 13.05% of the sampled locations are carcinogenic to children. The estimated health risk in the agricultural soil was high, with both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks that could threaten persons living in the study area, particularly children.ConclusionIn general, the continuous application of agriculturally related inputs such as phosphate fertilizers and other anthropogenic activities (e.g., steel industry) can increase the level of PTEs in soils. The use of mean, maximum, and minimum values in health risk estimation does not provide a comprehensive picture of a research area’s health state. This study recommends using a sampled pointwise or location health risks assessment approach, which allows researchers to identify high-risk environments that exceeds the recommended threshold as well as areas on the verge of becoming high risk, allowing for rapid remedial action.
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